Legislation Catalog

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The catalog below categorizes the decrees and laws ratified by President Sisi between the date of his inauguration (June 8, 2014) to the present using a subject-matter organization. A detailed description of the decrees and laws is accompanied by an explanation of the constitutional context in which these pieces of legislation came into existence. The decrees and laws are split into five categories which seek to highlight the greatest impact expected by the passage of said pieces of legislation: (1) Economy and Resources (2) Political & Social Rights (3) Military & Security Affairs (4) Foreign Policy (5) Administrative & Appointments.



DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
University Law An amendment which mandates that university heads & department heads be appointed by the President. The amendment also allows the President to terminate university heads upon approval of the Supreme Council of Universities “if he/she violates his/her duties towards the university and/or their presidential responsibilities.” Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities; allowing the President the authority to appoint university leadership raises questions as to whether universities can maintain that independence appropriately. The broad language of this provision also raises questions as to whether it will be used to implicate the rights of university and department heads to freedom of expression, enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 6/24/2014
Traffic Law This law involves new amendments to ensure safety on the road in response to a heightened amount of vehicular accidents, including punishments for those who drive while under the influence, individuals who drive without a license, and individuals who litter while on the road. The State, specifically the police (in Article 206 of the Constitution), has a generic duty to ensure the safety and security of the citizens. Ensuring that the roads are safe is a means by which to enhance this sense of security. 7/5/2014
Penal Code Amendment This amendment to the Penal Code penalizes the receipt of foreign funding, arms, or equipment with life imprisonment and the payment of a fine. A death sentence may also be issued if the accused in question is a civil servant. While Article 86 of the Constitution allows the State to take measures to protect national security, Article 65 preserves the rights of citizens to freedom of expression and Article 75 enshrines the right to form non-governmental organizations that have the right to practice their activities freely. By placing broad foreign funding provisions on all citizens alike, the State paves the way for potential crackdown against citizens and NGO’s in a manner that violates their constitutionally-enshrined rights. The broad language of the provisions suggest that anyone who receives foreign funding, including journalists, social workers, and corporate employees, may be subject to the heightened punitive measures laid forth by this provision. In addition to implicating Egypt’s domestic duties, such legislation violates the country’s international legal duties under Articles 19, 21, and 22 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 9/21/2014
Azhar Law This decree sets forth punishments that include expulsion and removal of students and teachers at Azhar University if they are found to impede in the educational process or detract from the institution’s prestige. As per Article 7 of the Constitution, Al-Azhar is an independent institution; further, Article 21 of the Constitution reiterates that universities are independent institutions as well. While this law grants Al-Azhar its own authority to deal with students as it sees fit, there are serious implications in allowing school administrators to remove students and teachers for their activities that include potential violations of the freedoms of thought, opinion, and expression as enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution. The possibility of removing students and teachers for their political inclinations could potentially violate both Egypt’s domestic and international legal duties under the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 10/23/2014
Extradition Law This decree grants the President the authority to transfer non-Egyptian defendants on trial or post-conviction to their countries in order to be tried or in order to serve their sentences. The Prosecutor-General must submit the extradition request and it must be approved by the Cabinet. Typically, extradition requests are governed by bilateral treaties between nations. Egypt however, does not have many bilateral extradition treaties; for this reason, this new Extradition Law is likely to govern a potentially-wide scope of nations. Article 151 grants the President the authority to represent the nation when it comes to foreign affairs and Article 155 grants him the authority to issue pardons and general amnesty contingent on parliamentary approval; the approval of extradition requests may potentially be implicated among these rights. There are some concerns however that the law grants the Prosecutor-General and the Cabinet extra-constitutional powers that would otherwise be unavailable to them, giving them the opportunity to make judicial determinations that would generally be reserved to a court of law. 11/12/2014
Ratification of the Arab Convention on Information Technology Crimes This Convention sets forth a number of punitive measures from crimes committed using technology and in the cyber sphere. While the Convention covers legitimate sources of cyber crime including incitement to terrorism and online fraud, the Convention also criminalizes porn and publication of government information, among other categories, the definition of which can be broadened to effectively turn into a violation of freedom of speech and expression. Under Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the State maintains a duty to protect the rights of citizens to freedom of expression; intervening in the cyber sphere to a heightened degree may thus directly implicate and potentially violate this right. 11/14/2014
Amendment to Criminal Procedure Code This is an amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code to ensure that the work conducted by investigative judges in criminal cases take no longer than 6 months to complete. Articles 96-98 of the Constitution mandate that every accused individual be granted a fair trial and due process rights. These same rights are reiterated in Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. Ensuring that investigations take no longer than 6 months are meant to serve as a measure to ensure that due process is served in a timely manner, thus bringing the criminal investigative procedure up to more efficient standards. It is unclear however if having a six month maximum is arbitrary and whether this efficiency will come at the expense of a full investigation. 11/18/2014
Approval of Church License This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Sohag. Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 11/18/2014
Amendment to the Law Governing the Protection of Manuscripts This amendment to the law governing the protection of manuscripts criminalizes the illegal trafficking and trade of manuscripts Articles 48-50 of the Constitution establish every citizen’s right to culture, alongside the duty of the State to protect this cultural heritage. Ensuring that historic manuscripts are preserve and kept within the country falls within this duty of the State to such protection. 12/15/2014
Electoral Districts Law This law divides the country into individual candidate districts & electoral list districts, paving the way for the upcoming parliamentary elections. Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to allow the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution to take place. Article 230 mandates that electoral procedures commence within a period not exceeding 6 months since the ratification of the Constitution; there are legal questions as to whether this period lapsed before the beginning of procedures (there is disagreement on what constitutes “procedures”). 12/22/2014
Amendment to Law Governing Expropriation of Property This amendment to the law governing the expropriation of property seeks to streamline the process of the expropriation of property for public uses and the reimbursement of individuals whose property is taken by the government. Article 35 of the Constitution allows the State to expropriate public property if in the public interest and for its benefit, and as long as fair compensation is to be paid. The right to property is one of the most controversial rights; although it is neither referred to in the ICCPR or ICESCR, it is recognized in Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that no one shall be “arbitrarily deprived of his property.” Although the Egyptian law regarding expropriation currently only allows expropriation in the public interest, thus arguably constitutional and internationally-acceptable, some concerns regarding the possibly-unequal implementation of the pertinent criteria do remain. 1/13/2015
Pardon on Occasion of January 25 This presidential decree involves a pardon for those with life sentences who’ve been jailed for 15 years and those with sentences above 6 months who’ve been jailed for at least half that time. A committee will meet to determine which prisoners meet the criteria laid out by the law; felonies & misdemeanors harming the government, and crimes related to explosives, bribery, forgery, obstructing traffic, weapons, drugs, construction, investment by corporations, Child Law, and money-laundering will not be covered by the pardon. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become custom in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are issued, the criteria for pardons, and the implementation of these pardons. Historically, political prisoners have not been granted presidential pardons, raising questions on the process. 1/13/2015
Decree Setting Forth Discipline for University Professors This decree gives university presidents the power to refer to professors to disciplinary committees for investigation if they participate in, incite, or help others commit violence on university premises, if they participate in political activities in universities, or if they bring weapons on campus. Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities; allowing university leadership the right to discipline professors for their actions raises questions on the relationship between the university and the State and the degree to which this independence is actually guaranteed. Furthermore, the broad language of the decree raises questions as to whether it will be used to implicate the rights of university and department heads to freedom of expression, enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 1/16/2015
Amendment to Child Law: This amendment allows foster families to take in children whose parentage is not known at the age of three months, instead of two years, which it has historically been. Article 11 of the Constitution places a duty on the State to protect childhood. Expanding on this, Article 80 of the Constitution, along with Article 24 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights, place a duty on the State to work towards the best interests of children in a number of arenas including the right to family and alternative care. Facilitating an earlier age of foster care seems to fall within this authority. 1/24/2015
Approval of Church License: This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Montaza, Alexandria. Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 1/24/2015
Amendment to Child Law This amendment changes the age for penal provisions in the Child Law from 21 years to 18 years. Article 80 of the Constitution defines a child as anyone under the age of 18 and mandates that the State protect the rights of children. Ensuring that all provisions of the Child Law apply to children below the age of 18 seems to fall within this authority, although in a country with a politicized, non-transparent judicial system, it is unclear whether the cause of justice will ultimately be served by this provision. 2/8/2015
Amendment to the Social Security Law This amendment expands the definition of "orphans" to include children whose fathers and/or parents are unknown. The amendment also grants the prime minister the authority to create some new social security programs based on the recommendations of the minister of finance and other ministers and within the confines of exisitng laws. Article 17 empowers the State to establish social insurance and social security programs; expanding the category of individuals subject to social security and creating new programs seems to fall within this authority. 3/10/2015
Amendment to Criminal Procedure Code This amendment extends the statute of limitations for bribery and embezzlement. Periods of limitation begin when the state employee committing the crime was removed from his post, rather than when the crime was actually committed Article 218 of the Constitution mandates that the State fight corruption; extending the statute of limitations for crimes of bribery and embezzlement seems to fall within this authority, as long as such process meets due process requirements and international standards of justice. 3/12/2015
Papal Elections Law This law effectively cancels the previous 1957 law governing the electon of the Coptic Pope. The law allows for the election of an interim pope who then establishes a committee that is composed of 10% of the Holy Synod to choose the pope via lottery. The law widens the voter base compared to the previous 1957 law. Article 3 of the Constitution grants Christians the right to choose their own spiritual leaders. A law governing the election of the Pope seems to fall within this authority. However, there are concerns that the law at hand discriminates between Coptic citizens, limits the potential base of nominees, makes distinctions within the voter base, and allows an arguably-disproportionate influence of religious figures on determining the voter base. Entities like EIPR have criticized the law for potential discrimination violations, embodied in provisions like Article 53. 3/23/2015
Approval of Church License This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Maadi, Cairo Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 4/6/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Ramadan This presidential decree pardons 165 detainees, many of which were charged with Protest Law violations Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become customary in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which they are issued, their criteria, and their implementation. 6/17/2015
Amendment to the Intellectual Property Law This decree amends the Intellectual Property Law by, among other things, setting forth that property must be novel, uniform, and stable to be afforded protection. Article 69 of the Constitution empowers the State to protect all types of intellectual property; amending the protections enshrined in the law seems to fall within this authority. 6/25/2015
Electoral Districts Law This law sets forth 205 electoral districts for individual candidates and 4 electoral districts for party lists for the upcoming parliamentary elections. Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Setting forth the electoral districts necessary to achieve this goal thus falls within this authority. This is the second iteration of the Electoral Districts Law, after an earlier edition was initially struck down by the Supreme Constitutional Court for failing to reflect "fair representation" as required by Article 102 of the Constitution. 7/9/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Eid al-Fitr and the July Revolution This presidential decree grants a pardon to certain prisoners on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr and the July Revolution. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become custom in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are issued, the criteria for pardons, and the implementation of these pardons. Historically, political prisoners have not been granted presidential pardons, raising questions on the process. 7/12/2015
Cancellation of Supreme Constitutional Court Decree This decree repeals an earlier decree ratified by former interim President Adly Mansour that required the Supreme Constitutional Court to rule on the constitutionality of election laws within five days of a challenge. Article 192 of the Constitution notes that the law will govern the competencies and procedures of the Supreme Constitutional Court; thus, issuing an amendment to the law governing the review of election laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court seems to fall within this authority. 7/28/2015
Amendments to House of Representatives Law This amendment updates the law to allow the incoming parliament to be made up of 120 members elected via party lists, 448 members elected as independents, and 28 appointed members. Transitional provisions in Articles 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Establishing the House of Representatives' membership thus falls within this authority. 8/1/2015
Amendments to Political Rights Law This amendment updates the law to set maximum campaign spending limits: LE2.5 million for 15-member lists (plus an additional LE1 million for runoffs, if necessary) and LE7.5 milion for 45-member lists (LE3 million for runoffs) Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Setting forth the candidacy and voting requirements and rights available to citizens thus falls within this authority. 8/1/2015
Pardon of 46 Sudanese Citizens This decree pardons 46 Sudanese citizens who had illegally crossed into Egypt and deports them back to Sudan. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons; this decree thus falls within this authority. 8/6/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Eid al-Adha This decree pardons 100 detainees, among them Sanaa Seif and Yara Sallam, detained under the Protest Law, and the Al Jazeera journalists detained in the Mariott Cell case. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become customary in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which they are issued, their criteria, and their implementation. While pardons for political prisoners have been rare, this is one of the first and most prominent incidents in which such prisoners have been granted release. The move came ahead of President Sisi's visit to the United Nations General Assembly in New York. Although the pardon was praised by various observers, serious concerns remain about the judicial and legal system and the reality that a pardon does not cure deep institutional challenges in need of vital reform. 9/23/2015
Pardon of 20 Sudanese Citizens This decree pardons 20 Sudanese citizens. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons; this decree thus falls within this authority. 10/7/2015
Punitive Measures for Exam Leaks This decree establishes a one-year prison sentence and a LE20,000-50,000 fine for persons who print, publish, broadcast, or promote the questions or answers to school exams with an intent to cheat on or disrupt exams. Article 19 of the Constitution sets forth the right to an education and authorizes the state to supervise public and private schools. Regulating the examination process, as in the provision at hand, arguably falls within this authority. 10/7/2015
Amendments to Prison Law This decree extends basic solitary confinement from one week to 15 days, allows visits by the National Council for Human Rights only after the approval of the prosecutor-general, allows the use of force by prison authorities to ensure that prison regulations are met, and allows mothers to keep their children with them until the age of four. Article 56 of the Constitution states that prisons will be regulated by the law. While a number of the amendments in this law help to further human dignity and protect human health, a few provisions also problematically expand the authority of prison authorities to use force, thus potentially violating the rights of detainees. Additionally, placing contraints on the National Council to conduct prison visits limits the regulation of prisons and contributes to an environment in which violations to the rights to dignity, to be free from torture, and to freedom as guaranteed by the Constitution and international law may occur without appropriate redress. 10/25/2015
Amendment to Law Governing Mayors This decree amends the law governing mayors and sets forth the membership and decision-making processes of security-related committees. Article 242 of the Constitution states that the existing system of municipal governance will continue for five years from the date of the ratification of the Constitution; amendments to the existing laws thus seem to fall within this authority. 11/17/2015
University Hospital Employee Benefits Decree This decree extends the benefits currently available to members of the medical profession to employees of university hospitals, including pharmacists. Article 13 of the Constitution protects workers' rights; ensuring that employees receive benefits commensurate with their qualifications thus seems to fall within this authority. 12/17/2015


DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
Border Tunnel Ban & Police Identification Law This law criminalizes the digging and use of tunnels at the country’s border areas to contact foreign entities or organizations or to smuggle persons or goods. The law also includes two provisions which criminalizes the forging of police and military identification cards and the imitation of their uniforms. Article 86 of the Constitution states that the protection of national security is a duty of the State. This law seemingly exists within that authority although there are some concerns on how the border tunnel ban will impact the country’s immigration laws and the smuggling/trafficking of individuals who are already in vulnerable situations (governed by Article 89 of the Constitution and in light of Egypt’s ratification of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children). 7/3/2014
Amendment to the Armed Forces Act This law raises military pensions by 10% without a minimum or maximum pension rate and amends other provisions of the Armed Forces Act that pertain to insurance and retirement benefits. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 7/10/2014
Armed Forces Amendments These amendments implement some changes to the provisions governing the rank of officers, the guidelines regulating reserve officers, and the technical schools for military members. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. However, serious questions exist in light of President Sisi’s former military affiliation and whether these protections and enhanced benefits to the military come as a product of nepotism that would violate the principles of the Constitution. 9/17/2014
Amendment to the Weapons and Ammunition Law This amendment makes the approval of the Ministry of Defense mandatory for all weapons deals. Previously, this law only required the approval of the Ministry of Interior; with this amendment, the law makes the approval of the Ministry of Defense an additional requirement. While there is no explicitly relevant language in the Constitution on this matter, there are questions as to whether such an amendment grants the Ministry of Defense an added level of authority that strengthens the institution in a disproportionate manner and thus potentially detracts from the democratic principles of the Constitution. 9/30/2014
Amendment to the Police Authority Law This amendment makes the Military Judiciary the only body with authority to try crimes committed by police recruits. Article 204 of the Constitution gives the military judiciary the sole authority to adjudicate on all crimes pertaining to the Armed Forces, officers, and their equivalents. While not explicitly referencing police affiliates, the article limits the bringing of citizens and any non-military personnel afore the military courts. Thus, this law raises concerns because allowing the military courts to try crimes committed by police recruits brings a significant subset of the population under the authority of a body which is not necessarily transparent and is not bound by the same due process requirements of civilian courts. The more commonly that cases are brought before the military courts, the more likely that due process violations (including the right to a fair trial under Article 96 of the Constitution and Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights) are implicated. 10/9/2014
Declaration of a State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decision declares a state of emergency in the north and center of the Sinai Peninsula for three months, with a curfew in place between 5 pm and 7 am every day. The decision also authorizes the army and police to take all necessary measures to tackle the dangers of terrorism and terrorist financing in the region. As per Article 86, the State is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the Constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament however, the Cabinet approves the state of emergency instead and when the parliament is elected, it must reapprove the state. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article exists alongside the 1958 Emergency Law to provide the President with the authority to declare a state of emergency; the President’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this grant of power. 10/24/2014
Military Judiciary Decree This decree allows military forces to join the police in securing public institutions for a period of two years. The decree that all attacks on public institutions covered by the decree will be considered attacks on military institutions and will thus be tried afore a military court. While the State enjoys an Article 86 authority to ensure national security, allowing any attack on a public institution to be tried by a military court is an expansion of the current constitutional limitation on the military judiciary in Article 204. There are thus serious concerns that subject citizens to military courts in this manner will deprive citizens of their constitutionally-enshrined due process rights as per Article 96 and as per international law in Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 10/27/2014
Appointment of National Security Advisors This decree appoints former Planning and International Cooperation Minister Fayza Aboul Naga as a Presidential Advisor for National Security and former Minister of Interior Ahmed Gamal El-Din as a Presidential Advisor for Security Affairs. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. While there is no doubt that the President has the right to seek such advice, there are concerns that having a large number of appointed individuals who were not democratically elected and granting such individuals extra-constitutional powers of influence detracts from the overall democratic process. Additionally, both of the affiliations of these advisors as individuals previously involved in crackdown on citizen rights raises questions on whether they will thus provide the President with advice that violates the rights of citizens to freedom of expression and assembly as per Articles 75 and 73 of the Constitution as well as Articles 19 and 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 11/5/2014
Decree Setting Forth the Delineation of Borders This decree regulates the country’s border regions for security purposes, categorizing some regions as “prohibited” and others as “restricted.” Article 86 of the Constitution lays out the protection of national security as a duty; with a spike in the number of bombings and security issues in the Sinai and other border areas, the country must take measures to ensure that its citizens are protected from threats. There is some concern however that measures like these are overreaching and potentially violate the right of citizens to freedom of movement and emigration as established by Article 62 of the Constitution. This comes on the heels of a broader fear that the over-militarization of land will lead to a general encroachment of rights and freedoms under the guise of national security. 11/29/2014
Amendment to Armed Forces’ Pension and Retirement Law This decree introduces gradual increases to the percentages in pensions and retirement benefits to members of the Armed Forces. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man however, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 12/4/2014
Decree Creating New Police Rank This decree sets forth the creation of a new police rank with arrest powers; policemen in this rank will be between the ages of 19 and 23 and must have completed preparatory school. Article 206 of the Constitution ensures that the State guarantee that the country’s police force is able to perform its duties. Creating more law enforcement positions may arguably fall within this category; however, there are serious concerns that creating new police officers, rather than reforming the Ministry of Interior and providing more adequate training for existing police officers, will only result in a furthering of the security state and increased violations accordingly. 12/15/2014
Decree Increasing Military Pensions This decree increases the rate at which 2007 military pensions are calculated by 5 percent. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits however. 12/22/2014
Creation of “Crisis Cell” This decision establishes a “Crisis Cell” to respond to the escalated situation regarding the kidnap and murder of Egyptian Copts in Libya. As per Article 88, the State has a duty to protect Egyptians abroad; the creation of a government entity to react to the kidnap and murder of Egyptian citizens outside of the country seems to exist within this authority. 1/5/2015
Awarding of Medals for Police Martyrs This decree awards medals to 177 police martyrs and medals of excellence to 190 others. Article 16 of the Constitution bestows the State with the duty to honor martyrs; honoring police martyrs seems to fall within this authority. 1/20/2015
Terrorist Entities Law This decree grants the Public Prosecution the authority to issue both a Terrorist Entities list and a Terrorist list, which designate organizations and individuals, respectively, per previous criminal verdicts or as determined by the court system. The decree also grants “competent state bodies” the authority to dissolve a terrorist entity, freeze its activities, close all affiliate buildings, ban meetings and all membership, stop its financial activities, freeze its property and assets, ban all related slogans, and temporarily deprive the individual or organization of his/her or its political rights. Article 86 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to protect national security and the role of the law in ensuring that said security is guaranteed. Granting the Public Prosecution the authority to designate terrorists and terrorist entities seemingly falls within that grant of authority; however, there are serious concerns that such designations may be used to impede on the freedom of assembly, speech, and expression rights of citizens as guaranteed in Articles 65 and 73 and provisions of the ICCPR. 2/24/2015
Amendment to Penal Code on Border Tunnels This decree amends the Penal Code to make the punishment for the digging of border tunnels life imprisonment. Article 86 of the Constitution grants the State the authority to uphold national security; criminalizing the digging of border tunnels, which are arguably a threat to national security, seems to fall within this authority as long as the State's other duties with regards to the rights of the individuals in question are ensured. 4/12/2015
Extension of the State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decree extends the state of emergency in certain regions of Northern Sinai for an additional three months. Per Article 86, the state is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament, however, the cabinet approves the state of emergency instead, with Parliament reviewing the declaration upon its election and seating. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article, along with the 1958 Emergency Law provides the president with the authority to declare a state of emergency. The President’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this power and follows the original declaration of a state of emergency in October 2014 and an extension in January 2015. 4/25/2015
Decree Increasing Military Pensions by 10 Percent This decree increases eligible military pensions by 10 percent starting on July 1, 2015. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military officer, there are, however, some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. Military pensions are set forth by Law No. 90 of 1975. 6/28/2015
Decree Allowing Formation of Security Companies This decree authorizes the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Defense, and General Intelligence to establish security companies to protect public facilities and public funds. Article 86 of the Constitution states that the protection of national security is a duty of the state and thus, actions taken within this broad grant of authority may be appropriate. There is fear, however ,that allowing government security bodies to establish private security companies will further militarize of the economy and raise questions on nepotism and other corruption-related financial matters. 7/12/2015
Decree Governing Judicial Committees for Military Officers This decree amends the law governing military judicial committees. The amendments include a provision making the deliberations of the judicial committees secret and allowing appeals in some cases. Article 204 of the Constitution gives the military judiciary the sole authority to adjudicate all crimes pertaining to the Armed Forces, officers, and their equivalents. Due process concerns with military trials abound; a decree setting forth the secrecy of the internal deliberations of judicial committees for military offcers may be issued for the purpose of national security, but may raise concerns on transparency. 7/12/2015
Extension of the State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decree extends the state of emergency in certain regions of North Sinai for an additional three months. Per Article 86, the state is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the Constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament, however, the cabinet approves the state of emergency instead, with Parliament reviewing the declaration upon its election and seating. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article, along with the 1958 Emergency Law provides the president with the authority to declare a state of emergency. The president’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this power and follows the original declaration of a state of emergency in October 2014 and two extensions in January 2015 and April 2015. 7/25/2015
Anti-Terrorism Law This law replaces the Penal Code's definition for terrorism, expands the number of terrorist crimes and imposes new penalties, sets forth a number of procedural guidelines in the investigation and trial of alleged terrorist crimes, and empowers the institutions of the state to take measures to combat alleged terrorism. Article 86 of the Constitution grants the state the authority to uphold national security; a law that implements counterterrorism strategies and penalizes terrorist acts seems to fall within this authority. However, because the law also features a broad definition of terrorism and incorporates a wide scope of activities, there is fear that its implementation will also bring violations to the rights to freedom of expression and assembly under domestic and international law. 8/15/2015
Decree Increasing the Maximum Limit of Military Pensions by 250 Percent This decree increases the maximum limit of military pensions by 250 percent. Article 202 of the Constitution reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military officer, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 8/19/2015


DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
Framework Agreement with Cyprus This decree represents a presidential ratification of a framework agreement with Cyprus providing for the co-exploitation of the hydrocarbon reserves in the Egyptian and Cypriot Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) which extend across the midline. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a framework agreement with a foreign country like Cyprus falls within this authority. 9/11/14
Approval of World Bank Loan This decree ratifies a World Bank comprehensive financing loan worth about $300 million. Generally, the President cannot approve loans or funding approval without explicit mention in the state budget and approval from the House of Representatives as per Article 127 of the Constitution; because of the absence of a House of Representatives however, it is likely that this action may be allowed. It may also be potentially covered under the President’s authority to conclude treaties and agreements under Article 151 of the Constitution. 10/30/14
Decree Regarding US-Egypt Cooperation on Water This decree approves an amendment to a cooperation agreement between the United States and Egypt with regards to water and sanitation services. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the country in all foreign relations and to conclude treaties and agreements accordingly, albeit after the approval of the House of Representatives. Because Egypt does not yet have a House of Representatives, the President seems to be acting within his authority here. Article 79 of the Constitution also grants every citizen the right to clean water; taking measures to regulate water and sanitation services seems to ensure that the right is guaranteed. 11/24/14
Five Decrees Facilitating Cooperation with the United States These five decrees facilitate cooperation with the United States in the fields of electricity generation, science and technology, higher education, agriculture, trade, and investments. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; agreements which facilitate cooperation with the United States on a number of important economic and social levels falls within this authority. 12/16/14
Cooperation Agreement with Mauritius This decree facilitates cooperation with Mauritius on investment-related matters. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement which facilitates investment with Mauritius falls within this grant of power. 12/18/14
Agreements with China Strategic Framework Agreement signed with China, along with a number of economic agreements. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; framework and economic agreements with a foreign country like China seems to fall within this authority. 12/22/14
Amendment to US-Egypt Agreement on Utilities This is an amendment to the existing cooperation agreement between the United States and Egypt with regards to Egyptian utilities and amenities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement which involves cooperation with a foreign nation on utilities and amenities seems to fall within this authority. 1/1/15
Agreement with South Sudan This is an agreement between Egypt and South Sudan to ensure that individuals with a diplomatic passport need not apply for a visa in advance of traveling between the two countries. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement ensuring the strength of diplomatic relations with a newly established nation seems to fall within this authority. 1/16/15
Ratification of Agreement with the United Nations Population Fund This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the United Nations Population Fund regarding the role that the institution will play inside the country. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the role of the UNFPA in Egypt seems to fall within this grant of power and also relates to the duty of the State to contribute to the country’s economic development as laid out in Article 27. 1/16/15
Ratification of Agreement with the World Food Programme This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the United Nations’ World Food Programme in order to facilitate the creation of fixed assets for poorer communities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the offering of UN-services to Egyptian citizens seems to fall within this authority & also relates to the duty of the State to contribute to the economic system as laid out in Article 27. 1/16/15
Ratification of Loan Agreement with the Khalifa Fund: This is a ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and the United Arab Emirates’ Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development in the amount of $200 million. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement facilitating business relations seems to fall within this authority. 1/16/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Education: This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation on education. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating educational opportunities seems to fall within this authority and within the duty of the State to provide educational opportunities for its citizens as per Articles 19-21. 1/22/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Tourism This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation and investment in the Egyptian tourism sector. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the growth and development of the tourism sector seems to fall within this authority. 2/11/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Research and Technology This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation on research and technology. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating research and technological advancement seems to fall within this authority. 2/12/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Trade and Investment This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating trade and investment. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating trade and investment seems to fall within this authority. 2/26/15
Ratification of the International Convention On the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships This is a ratification of the 2001 International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships. Article 45 of the Constitution commits the State to protecting its waterways; ratifying an international agreement that seeks to limit the harm that ship systems have on waterways seems to fall within this authority. Furthermore, Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements like the one at hand. 3/19/15
Ratification of World Bank Loan on Natural Gas This decree ratifies a World Bank $500 million loan agreement to fund a natural gas distribution system meant to benefit 1.5 million households currently relying on older means of gas distribution. Article 151 of the constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement facilitating the creation of a natural gas project seems to fall within this authority. Additionally, Article 32 of the constitution sets forth the right of all citizens to natural resources, alongside the duty of the state to preserve and effectively exploit such resources. Signing a loan agreement that makes natural resource use more effective can arguably fall within the State's duty. 4/23/15
Ratification of Agreement with the World Food Programme This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the World Food Programme to improve living conditions for poor families, especially those residing in the Red Sea area. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating a partnership between Egypt and the World Food Programme seems to fall within this authority. 5/14/15
Ratification of Agreement with the International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation to finance the importation of basic commodities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the importation of basic commodities with the help of a foreign entity seems to fall within this authority. 5/21/15
Ratification of Agreement with the UAE on the Islamic Art Museum This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the UAE governing the renovation of the Islamic Art Museum. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the renovation of a local museum with the help of a foreign nation seems to fall within this authority. 5/21/15
Ratification of Saudi Arabian Loan for Electricity Expansion Project This is a ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia worth 150 million Saudi Riyal to expand an electricity generation station in Damietta Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating a loan agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia seems to fall under this authority. 6/11/15
Ratification of Egypt-Albania Customs Agreement This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and Albania governing customs cooperation and other forms of mutual assistance. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a customs agreement between Egypt and Albania seems to fall within this authority 7/2/15
Ratification of Agreement between Egypt and Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development regarding an electricity expansion project in Cairo. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an electricity expansion agreement between Egypt and the Kuwait Fund seems to fall within this authority. 7/16/15
Ratification of Egypt-Japan Aqueducts Agreement This is the ratification of an LE365 million agreement between Egypt and Japan approving the establishment of aqueducts; this agreement had initially been signed on March 14. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement on the establishment of aqueducts by a foreign entity falls within this authority. 8/13/15
Ratification of Egypt-ILO Agreement This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Labor Organization on expanding the job opportunities for Egyptian youth. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating labor falls within this authority. 8/27/15
Ratification of Agreement Between Egypt and the European Bank This is the ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and the European Bank on a sanitation services project in Kafr al-Sheikh. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement on sanitation services between Egypt and the European Bank falls within this authority 9/10/15
Ratification of Agreement between Egypt and the International Fund for Agricultural Development This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Fund for Agricultural Development to finance an agricultural investment project and to raise the standard of living for Egyptians. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement on agricultural development between Egypt and an international body falls within this authority. 9/20/15
Approval of Loan Agreement with Italy This decree approves a concessional loan agreement between Egypt and Italy to improve the system of sustainable land ownership in Minya and Fayoum. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements. An agreement approving a loan between Egypt and Italy to enable economic development seems to fall within this authority and additionally fulfills the state's duty to protect and develop agricultural land under Article 29. 10/8/15
Amendment to Oil Exploration and Exploitation Agreement This decree amends the Oil Exploration and Exploitation Agreement in Northern Alexandria with the BP and Rwe Dea AG companies. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements. An agreement enabling oil exploration with foreign companies thus falls within this authority and also relates to Article 32 of the Constitution which enables the exploitation of resources. 10/26/15
Withdrawal of Reservation to the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child This decree withdraws Egypt's prior reservation to the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child as pertains to child marriage. The article that Egypt has previously made a reservation to stated that children may not be married or engaged, and that the signatories to the treaty must take effective measures to ban marriage before the age of 18. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; the withdrawal of a reservation thus falls within this authority. 11/26/15
Approval of World Bank Loan on Social Safety Nets This decree approves a $400 million loan with the World Bank to support social safety nets in Egypt. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement approving a World Bank loan thus seems to fall within this authority. 12/10/15
Ratification of African Development Bank Decree This decree ratifies an African Development Bank decree regarding the allocation of the bank's shares. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement approving this decree seems to fall within this authority. 12/24/15