Understanding Egypt’s Economic Troubles

In 2016, the IMF gave Egypt its first bailout loan, $12 billion, and in return the country’s leadership was asked to take two main measures: implement long sought-after austerity measures; and encourage the development of an inclusive economy driven by the private sector, needed in order to create jobs to pull people out of poverty. The former was implemented but the latter was not.

Tunisia’s Low-Carbon Energy Transitions

Tunisia has been forced to face the inherent vulnerability of its energy sector due to external shocks in the energy market. The government raised in April 2022 fuel prices by around 5 percent for the third time this year, placing mounting pressure on ordinary Tunisians’ purses at a time when food and electricity prices are also on the rise. Against this background of Tunisia’s reliance on fossil fuels, this article surveys the country’s low-carbon energy transition and its potential to diversify away from fossil fuels and offer a sustainable, low-cost solution to energy needs.

Egypt’s Next IMF Loan: How to Avoid the Failures...

In 2016, the IMF lent Egypt $12 billion, launching a program of economic reform and austerity. Six years later, Egypt is returning to the lender of last resort for the third time, after the 2016 program failed in its primary objectives. The IMF and its shareholders now have a new opportunity to correct their past mistakes. It is not too late to encourage Egypt to undertake difficult reforms that can unleash the country’s potential, rein in the regime’s economic malpractice, and set the country on the path to sustainable and inclusive private sector-led growth and increased labor force participation. Only then will there be the macroeconomic stability that IMF planners and Egyptian officials insist they are targeting.


Dual Threats: Water Scarcity and Rising Sea Levels in...

As global temperatures rise, spurred on by human activity, an environmental crisis has emerged with severe repercussions across the Middle East and North Africa. Egypt is an important case study for climate change vulnerabilities.

Reports & Briefs

TIMEP Brief: Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6,500-megawatt hydroelectric power plant being constructed in Ethiopia, has been a major point of contention between Egypt and its southern neighbors.

TIMEP Brief: China’s Role in Egypt’s Economy

China’s interests in Egypt have brought valuable revenue into the country, but their long-term social impact is unclear, and the strengthening of ties may facilitate rights abuses as China has interrogated and repatriated members of its Muslim Uighur community from Egypt.

TIMEP Monthly Briefs: July 2019

This monthly compilation of TIMEP briefs offers succinct, policy-relevant information on regional issues, laws, and policies, highlighting the context in which developments occur, their trajectories, and implications.


In partnership with Tree Media’s Need to Know (N2K) project, the Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy (TIMEP) has produced a video series unpacking the diplomatic conflict related to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) situated on the Blue Nile River. Since construction on GERD began in early 2011, it has been a political flashpoint between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan, with each nation staking out competing claims about how GERD poses either an opportunity or a threat to their respective countries.

Egypt’s Economic Trajectory provides tools to help make sense of the country’s reform program, along with analysis of developments and data, to assess the program in terms not only of economic indicators, but also its impact on social health and human rights.