02/25/2019 . By Timothy E. Kaldas

In one of the least surprising political developments in Egypt since 2013, President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi’s allies are moving to amend Egypt’s constitution so that he can continue to rule the country until 2034.

02/15/2019 . By Candace Lukasik

On December 12, 2018, Emad Kamal Sadek, 49, and his son David Emad, 21, were shot and killed by Rabea Mustafa Khalefa, an Egyptian police officer and guard, in front of the Holiness Revival Church in Minya in Upper Egypt.

02/08/2019 . By Mohamed El Dahshan

When Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir visited Cairo on the week commemorating the Egyptian 2011 revolution, receiving needed public support from Egypt’s President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi during a joint press conference,

02/07/2019 . By Amer Mohamad

On February 9 last year, the Egyptian military spokesman announced the launch of “Comprehensive Military Operation Sinai 2018.” The operation, which involved the army, navy, air force, border patrol, and

01/28/2019 . By Timothy E. Kaldas

In late December, Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi announced the formation of a committee to combat sectarianism in Egypt. On its face, Sisi’s decision is welcome, especially after a series

03/04/2019 . By TIMEP

This monthly compilation of TIMEP briefs offers succinct, policy-relevant information on regional issues, laws, and policies, highlighting the context in which developments occur, their trajectories, and implications.

02/28/2019 . By TIMEP

Summary: On December 20, 2018, the defendants in Case 173, popularly known as Egypt’s foreign funding case, were acquitted in a widely anticipated retrial. The case dates to 2011, when

02/12/2019 . By TIMEP

The Uber and Careem Law is significant in that it regulates ride-sharing companies for the first time in the country’s history. The law has serious implications for privacy because it creates a scheme in which ride-sharing companies must maintain user data for a lengthy period of time and provide it to authorities when asked, contributing to the state’s expansive surveillance mechanism.

02/11/2019 . By TIMEP

This compilation of January’s TIMEP briefs offers succinct, policy-relevant information on regional issues, laws, and policies, highlighting the context in which developments occur, their trajectories, and implications. 

02/07/2019 . By TIMEP

The current proposed amendments to the constitution raise severe concerns over the fundamental and lasting ways in which they will alter Egypt’s legal landscape, state-society relations, and power dynamics.

04/24/2018 . By TIMEP

TIMEP continues to call on the Egyptian government to adhere to its domestic and international obligations to guarantee freedom of expression.

11/25/2017 . By TIMEP

TIMEP offers condolences to victims and families killed in the attack on the Sufi mosque in Bir al-Abd, North Sinai, and resoundingly denounces this attack and ongoing violence in Egypt.

10/03/2017 . By TIMEP

TIMEP continues to call on the Egyptian government to immediately end its persecution of Egypt’s LGBT community and wider crackdown on individual freedoms and freedom of expression.

04/16/2017 . By TIMEP

On Sunday April 16, a Cairo criminal court acquitted Egyptian-American activist Aya Hijazi and six co-defendants on charges of human trafficking, kidnapping, and the sexual exploitation and torture of children.

03/03/2017 . By TIMEP

The letter addressed the current crackdown on Egypt’s civil society organizations, human rights defenders, and media workers as evidenced by the continuation of the 2011 legal case against NGOs.

08/22/2018 . By TIMEP

The fact sheet here describes the various individuals who announced their intention to contest the elections, the response to that announcement, and other relevant information about their campaigns.

05/15/2018 . By TIMEP

The final brief in the Pulling Back the Curtain series highlights developments and dynamics during and after the voting period, focusing on domestic and international reactions to President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi’s reelection.

04/20/2018 . By TIMEP

Rather than present a vision for Egypt’s next four years, Sisi eschewed any real policy platform in favor of mobilizing sentiments of both fear and patriotism to ensure that citizens participate in the vote.

03/21/2018 . By TIMEP

Egypt’s 2018 presidential election period offers little illusion of any outcome than the president’s reelection. Yet Sisi’s second term will have important implications in several policy areas.

02/01/2018 . By TIMEP

These repressive measures notwithstanding, the period also included genuine resistance, both to President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi and to the compulsory nature of his reelection.

03/13/2019 . By TIMEP

The Constitutional Affairs Committee is holding several dialogue sessions with political figures and civil society members to discuss the proposed constitutional amendments. The body is expected to meet twice next week and complete its outreach by March 24.

02/27/2019 . By TIMEP

After the House of Representatives agreed in principle to the proposed constitutional amendments on February 14, several political parties and their members engaged in internal disputes or split due to differing opinions on the proposal. Notable parties with internal strife included the Wafd, Conservative, and Democratic Egypt Parties. Some members resigned from their respective organizations, while others were subject to internal investigations.

02/15/2019 . By TIMEP

The House of Representatives agreed in principle to the proposed constitutional amendments. Media reports indicated a vote of 485 to 18 in favor, though no official tabulation or record of votes was released. Speaker of the House Ali Abdel ‘Al subsequently referred the amendments to the Constitutional and Legislative Affairs Committee, which will review the proposal for up to 60 days.

02/06/2019 . By TIMEP

Summary Representatives from the Coalition in Support of Egypt officially proposed amendments to the constitution, which include extending presidential term limits to two six-year terms. The amendments would also reduce

02/05/2019 . By TIMEP

TIMEP’s infographic “Amending Egypt’s Constitution” helps users better understand the process for amending the constitution as laid out by Articles 133 to 143 of the House of Representatives’ bylaws and Article 226 of the constitution.

03/08/2019 . By TIMEP

On March 7, Egyptian interior ministry forces killed seven alleged Hassm members after intercepting a van transporting explosives and nine tunnels connecting North Sinai with Gaza were destroyed by counterterrorism forces and military engineers.

03/01/2019 . By TIMEP

In an attempt to deescalate tensions between Hamas and Israel, Egypt released four members of Hamas’ military wing, Qassam Brigades, who were in Egyptian custody after their abduction by masked men in Egypt in 2015.

02/22/2019 . By TIMEP

Summary After allegedly planting two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in Giza Square on February 15, an individual named al-Hassan Abdullah detonated an IED in al-Darb al-Ahmar on February 18, killing

02/15/2019 . By TIMEP

Summary Egyptian Defense Minister General Muhammad Zaki met with US CENTCOM Commander General Joseph Votel in Cairo. A Hamas officer died after Egyptian security forces pumped toxic gas into a

02/08/2019 . By TIMEP

Summary Four new claimed and unclaimed terror operations in Egypt were reported, including a rare attack reported outside of North Sinai, in Egypt’s New Valley governorate. Three counter-terror operations were

10/22/2018 . By TIMEP

The common court system is made up of three tiers: courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the Court of Cassation. The structure and jurisdiction of the common court system is determined by the Judicial Authority Law, the Criminal Procedure Code, and the Civil and Commercial Procedure Code.


Regardless of the name they are given, the structure they take, and the scope they adopt, the purpose of truth-seeking measures is often the same: to construct a narrative about the period of conflict or repression.


Even a well-functioning domestic judiciary may not necessarily result in accountability for every abuse committed. For this reason, domestic trials cannot be the only transitional justice mechanism relied on by a country.


Depending on the political context following a period of repression and conflict, amnesties may be able to serve as a complementary transitional justice tool to support other mechanisms of justice; however, if abused, they can entirely fail to guarantee justice for the victims of crimes and further a culture of impunity.


In Egypt, truth-seeking initiatives have taken different forms, enjoyed different mandates, and maintained different degrees of authority. The success of these initiatives has varied depending on political will, independence, ability to follow through, and many other factors.