The Iraqi parliament’s upper house, constitutionally defined as the Federation Council, has never been established. Establishing the Federation Council would be a step forward in Iraq’s democratization and ability to resolve disputes.
Influential and activist members of several Kurdistan opposition parties have sought to introduce reforms, but these have largely been rejected by the political elite in their parties.
Along with a widespread commitment to democracy among Turks and a resilient civil society, the victory of a pro-Kurdish rights party in securing enough votes to enter parliament could still strengthen Turkey’s democracy and regional stability.
The results of Iraq’s parliamentary elections this month took many by surprise. Populist Shi’ite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr’s coalition won a plurality of 329 seats, followed by three other lists dominated
Significant divisions among Sunni, Shi’a, and the Kurdish parties have led to uncertainty—yet they could also lead to new alliances that may improve political dynamics in Iraq.
TIMEP Nonresident Fellow Hassan Hassan answered questions about recent terrorist attacks in Beirut and Paris apparently carried out by the Islamic State.