State Actors

Mahmoud Tawfiq

Background Mahmoud Tawfiq Abdel Gawad Qandil was born August 3, 1961, in Giza, and graduated from the Police Academy in 1982. Following graduation, Tawfiq worked for various sectors within the Ministry of Interior, including the Cairo Security Directorate, before joining...

Muhammad Ahmed Zaki

Background Muhammad Ahmed Zaki was born in 1956 in Egypt, and graduated from the Military Academy in 1977. Zaki originally served as a member of the infantry, and was an active figure in the Kuwait liberation campaign in 1991. Zaki...

Khaled Shalaby

Khaled Muhammad Shalaby Hashim

Background Major General Khaled Shalaby is the Director of Security in the governorate of Fayoum. Prior to his current appointment, Shalaby served as Director of Police Investigations for the Giza General Directorate, and was previously the deputy director of the...

Magdy Abdel Ghaffar

Background Born in 1952 in Menofeya, to a family with numerous members in senior government service, Magdy Abdel Ghaffar graduated from the Police Academy in Cairo in 1974. He spent the first three years of his career serving in the...

Faiza Abou el-Naga

Background Faiza Abou el-Naga is a special adviser to Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi on national security affairs. Abou el-Naga joined the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1975, where she held a variety of positions, including representing Egypt in...

Muhammad Abdellah

Background Major General Muhammad Abdellah is the Commander of the Third Field Army, which is headquartered in Suez and operates in South Sinai. Abdellah was born in Alexandria in 1958, and is a graduate of the Military Academy, though sources...

Medhat al-Menshawy

Background Major General Medhat al-Menshawy is a career officer who served in a number of prominent posts within the Ministry of Interior and made a name for himself by violently confronting and dispersing Islamist protesters and militants. He served with...

Shoaib Siaam

Background Major General Shoaib Abdo Siaam is a graduate of the Police Academy who served as a senior figure in the paramilitary Central Security Forces (CSF) for several years. In 2010, Siaam was wounded during clashes in Giza, in which...

Sedki Sobhi

Background Sobhi’s ascension through the ranks of the Third Field Army follows a typical career progression, serving in administrative positions and as executive officer before taking command of the army. His promotion to chief of staff of the armed forces...

Hussein Tantawi

Background In his time as defense minister, Tantawi resisted pressure from the United States to reform American military assistance away from prestige military hardware (such as tanks, fighter aircraft, and helicopters) and toward equipping and training Egyptian forces for counterinsurgency...