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THE LEGISLATION TRACKER PROJECT

Note: This is an archived project. No updates have been made to it since January 2016, when the House of Representatives sat for the first time since the 2014 constitution had been ratified, ending President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi’s unilateral legislative power.

The catalog below categorizes the decrees and laws ratified by President Sisi between the date of his inauguration (June 8, 2014) to the present using a subject-matter organization. A detailed description of the decrees and laws is accompanied by an explanation of the constitutional context in which these pieces of legislation came into existence. The decrees and laws are split into five categories which seek to highlight the greatest impact expected by the passage of said pieces of legislation: (1) Economy and Resources, (2) Political & Social Rights, (3) Military & Security Affairs, (4) Foreign Policy, and (5) Administrative & Appointments.

DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
Tax Law This law sets forth a number of taxes, including an income tax that would apply to professionals, including accountants, doctors, engineers, and teachers who have earned income through providing services in Egypt and abroad. The law also sets forth a tax on all revenue generated by commercial and industrial transactions both within and outside Egypt, carried out by ordinary Egyptian citizens. Finally, new taxes established by the law also cover intellectual property rights, capital gains for transactions on the stock market, and dividends. Article 27 of the Constitution mandates that the State implements a fair taxation system, which according to Article 38, is meant to develop State resources and achieve social justice and development. The remainder of Article 38 also grants the State the authority to issue laws that regulate the tax system. While this law seems to literally exist within legal confines, there are questions on the authority and ability of the State to enforce taxes on individuals residing outside of Egypt. 7/1/2014
Maximum Wage Law This law establishes a limit on maximum wage in the public sector, capping it at LE 42,000 monthly. The law applies to those working in the government, municipalities, national authorities, state-owned services, and economic institutions. This law came to implement Article 27 of the Constitution which sets forth a minimum and maximum wage; further Article 7 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights mandates that states ensure that citizens are provided with fair wages in the workplace. 7/3/2014
Decree Increasing Electricity Prices This decision increases the price of electricity from around 0.23 pounds per kilowatt hour to 0.51 pounds over a 5 year period. This is an administrative/regulatory government activity that seems to exist well-within government authority. 7/4/2014
Real Estate Law This law incorporates a number of real estate-related amendments including new regulations about mortgage companies, the provision of low-income housing, and punishments for those who work in real estate matters without a license. Article 79 of the Constitution mandates that the State ensures the right of citizens to adequate, safe, and healthy housing, including the setting forth of plans that address issues of inequity and slums. Additionally, Article 221 of the Constitution sets forth the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority as the responsible entity for the management of mortgage finance, among other things. Although its implementation has not yet been made clear, this law seems to come into force to bring together the various actors in the real estate sector to manage the issue of housing. It is unclear whether its provisions will be sufficient to reverse the immense housing challenges among Egypt’s poorer classes, an aspirational goal which must be addressed in light of the universal right to housing as enshrined in Article 11 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. 7/5/2014
Decree Setting Forth Taxes on Alcohol and Cigarettes This decision raises the sales tax on cigarettes by up to 120 percent and doubles the tax on alcohol. Article 27 and 38 of the Constitution together give the State the authority to establish a fair taxation system in order to appropriately regulate the economy and ultimately contribute to the development of the economy. 7/6/2014
Property Tax Law This law amends the Property Tax Law to modify the tax-exempt tranche, granting Armed Forces-affiliated properties, among other residential properties of certain values, tax-exempt status. Article 27 of the Constitution mandates that the State implements a fair taxation system, which according to Article 38, is meant to develop State resources and achieve social justice and development. The remainder of Article 38 also grants the State the authority to issue laws that regulate the tax system. The decision to allocate tax-exempt status to certain entities is thus within the confines in this provision. Due to the increasing levels of benefits handed down to the Armed Forces however, some query as to whether there is disproportionate benefit directed towards the institution and whether this contributes to the development of a militarily-dominated economy. 8/20/2014
Suez Canal Investment Certificate Law This decree allows the Suez Canal Authority to issue tax-exempt investment certificates. The certificates will be issued by the National Bank of Egypt, Banque Misr, Banque du Caire, and the Suez Canal Bank. The certificates will be issued at 10, 100, and 1,000 pound values with a five year maturity and 12% interest rate. Article 27 grants the government the authority to conduct activities that encourage investment; thus, the Suez Canal project and the issuing of investment certificates seems to exist in this constitutional grant. 9/1/2014
Social Insurance Law This decree amends the Social Insurance Law and sets forth the minimum and maximum wages for the payment schedule. Article 17 of the Constitution and Article 9 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights together obligate the State to ensure that social insurance services are available, thus facilitating the passing of this law. 9/3/2014
Zakat Charity Fund Law This law sets forth the foundation of a Zakat Charity Fund to collect and distribute funds as per the sharia. Article 90 of the Constitution references the creation of a charitable endowment system; however, it is likely that the creation of the Zakat Charity Fund implicates the sharia-related duties of the President and the Ministry of Religious Endowments not explicitly referenced by the Constitution, but implied by Article 2. 9/10/2014
Agriculture Insurance Fund This law orders the formation of an agricultural insurance fund to cover damage caused by natural disasters and insects. Article 17 of the Constitution establishes social insurance and special pension benefits to farmers and agricultural workers; together with Article 29 of the Constitution, which protects agricultural land from environmental risks, these provisions pave the way for enhanced protections for farmers, a generally-marginalized segment of the Egyptian population. This law furthers the principles behind both of these articles. 9/18/2014
Health Insurance for Farmers & Agricultural Workers Law This law regulates health insurance for farmers and agricultural workers, both of which would regularly be uninsured. In addition to the emphasis placed in the Constitution on agricultural purposes and farmers via Articles 17 and 29, Article 18 mandates that the State establish a comprehensive health insurance system for all Egyptians. A law which extends this insurance to farmers and workers (who would both regularly be uninsured) thus extends important state-run benefits to a significant portion of society. 9/18/2014
Renewable Energy Authority Law This law is meant to facilitate the production of electricity and power from renewable sources and meant to enhance the financial capabilities of the Renewable Energy Authority. Article 32 mandates that the State make the best use of its renewable energy sources and encourage relevant scientific research to enhance its development; this law furthers the goals of this article. 10/23/2014
Micro-Finance Law This law governs micro-finance services and attempts to attract investors by establishing a supervisory system, outlining rules to manage risk and protect participants, and by laying out the requirements for financial solvency and disclosure requirements for licensing. Article 27 grants the government the authority to conduct activities that encourage investment; as per the argument of some economists, a re-working of micro-finance services seems to serve these purposes. 11/13/2014
Decree Establishing Tahya Masr Fund This decree sets forth the Tahya Masr fund as a legal entity to which donations can be made. Article 27 of the Constitution grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; creating a donation fund to which Egyptians can provide support to the developing nation-state seems to fall within the broad grant of economic authority handed down to the state. Additionally, Article 36 of the Constitution affirms this, by putting a responsibility on the private sector to undertake a certain social responsibility in serving the economy. 11/17/2014
Mortgage Fund for Low-Income Individuals This decree establishes a mortgage fund for low-income individuals. Article 27 of the Constitution grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; establishing a fund to regulate mortgage prices for low-income individuals may fall within that grant of authority. 11/18/2014
Decree Increasing Pensions This decree raises the percentage by which pensions are to be calculated by 10 percent. Multiple provisions in the Constitution (Articles 83 and 128) authorize the State to provide for appropriate pension levels. This decree thus falls within this authority. 12/9/2014
Amendment to Income Tax Law This amendment facilitates electronic payment for some entities affected by this law. Article 38 of the Constitution sets forth the role of the tax system in contributing to the Egyptian economy; allowing entities to pay their taxes via an electronic means seemingly strengthens the system and furthers the goals of the taxation system. 12/21/2014
Renewable Energy Law This law facilitates the creation of electricity from renewable energy sources. Article 32 of the Constitution mandates that the State make the best possible use of renewable energy sources; a law facilitating the development of electricity from these sources seems to fall within this grant of authority. 12/22/2014
Amendment to Agricultural Cooperation Law This amendment allows agricultural cooperatives to be considered non-profits for the purposes of the law. Article 29 of the Constitution states that agriculture is a basic component of the economy and gives the State the authority to take measures within this principle; declaring agricultural cooperatives to be non-profits seems to further the nation’s agriculture industry and also builds on the right of citizens to establish non-governmental associations as per Article 75 of the Constitution. 12/28/2014
Law Governing Domestic Cotton Trade This is an amendment to the law governing domestic cotton trade that sets aside certain types of cotton products for trading that is facilitated specifically by the Ministry of Agriculture. Article 29 of the Constitution highlights the importance of agriculture to the Egyptian economy and lays out the role of the State herein. While it is not yet clear how this specific amendment will play out for cotton growers, it comes on the heels of a recent government decision to end cotton subsidies and thus, has caused alarm for some farmers. 1/16/2015
Law Granting Preference to Egyptian Goods in Government Contracts This law grants preference to local and domestic goods and services within government contracts in an effort to promote local investment efforts. Articles 27 and 28 of the Constitution place a duty on the State to promote economic development and encouragement investment; setting forth a law which seeks to give preference to domestic goods seems to fall within this grant of authority. 1/21/2015
Amendment to Customs Tax Law This is an amendment to the law governing the customs tax that, among other things, removes the tax on certain medications that are urgently needed. Article 27 of the Constitution mandates that Egypt maintain a fair tax system; Article 18 iterates every citizen's right to health and the duty of the State to ensure this right. Guaranteeing that citizens have access to the medicine they need by levying the customs tax on medicine seems to fall within this grant of authority. 2/7/2015
Amendment Raising Cigarette Tax This is an amendment raising the sales tax on both local and imported cigarettes. The decision increases a flat tax by at least seven cents for a pack of less expensive cigarettes. More expensive brands will see an increase of at least 20 cents. Articles 27 and 38 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to lay out a fair system of taxation. Taxing cigarettes seems to fall within that grant of authority. 2/22/2015
Amendment to the Guidelines Establishing the National Planning Institute This is an amendment to the guidelines establishing the National Planning Institute in order to enhance development. Article 27 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to promote development, alongside Article 23 on the promotion of scientific research. Enhancing the structure of the National Planning Institute to better promote such development seems to fall within this grant of authority. 3/2/2015
Decree Establishing Specialized Council for Economic Development This is a decree to establish the Specialized Council for Economic Development. Article 27 of the Constitution sets forth the duty of the State to maintain and enhance the economic system; establishing tools to promote economic development seems to fall within this authority. Although the President enjoys a general appointment authority to create such bodies, such appointments and committees should not impede on the existing State institutions already working on these portfolios. 3/7/2015
Decree Establishing Center for Contract Farming This decree establishes the Center for Contract Farming, an affiliate of the Ministry of Agriculture. Article 29 of the Constitution sets forth agriculture as a basic component of the Egyptian economy and empowers the State to act to ensure this element of the economy; establishing a center which promotes contract farming seems to fall within this grant of authority. 3/8/2015
Amendment to Investment Law This decree amends the Investment Law to facilitate investment procedures for companies and to bolster incentives for investments to take place. The decree also sets out provisions for voluntary liquidation and other relevant processes. Article 27 of the Constitution sets forth the duty of the state to maintain and enhance the economic system, as well as to encourage investment; Article 28 further mandates that the state set forth an investment-attracting environment. Enhancing the existing legal scheme and tools in order to promote economic development and investment seems to fall within this authority. 3/12/2015
Suez Canal Development Project Investment Certificates Law This law governs the process of issuing investment certificates for the Suez Canal Development Project. This will allow money raised from investment certificates to be used in the development of the canal zone, not only the expansion of the canal itself Article 43 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to protect, develop, and maintain the Suez Canal; facilitating investment in the new development project seems to fall within this authority and the general duty of the State to maintain the economic system. 3/24/2015
Amendment to Social Housing Law This amendment cancels the provision in the Social Housing Law which made any surplus in the annual budget of the New Urban Communities Authority automatically incorporated into the social housing fund. Article 78 of the Constitution mandates that the State ensure its citizens rights to housing (also reiterated in Article 11 of the International Covenant for Civil, Economic, and Social Rights). The article also empowers the State to regulate state land for the purpose of the public interest and to manage the issue of unplanned housing and slums; this amendment, which seeks to restructure public housing, seems to fall within this authority. The immediate impact of the amendment is not yet clear. 4/2/2015
Amendment to Trade Union Term This decree amends the current trade union leadership term for an additional year or until a new Trade Union Law is ratified (whichever comes first) Article 76 of the Constitution authorizes the creation of syndicates and unions, guaranteeing their independence in the process. At present, it is not yet clear how this amendment will impact, if at all, their activities. 5/23/2015
Establishment of Committee to Recover Assets Abroad This decree establishes a committee dedicated to the recovery of assets and property abroad Article 218 of the Constitution empowers the State to fight corruption; establishing a committee to recover Egyptian assets abroad may work to reverse some of the adverse effects of poor economic practices. 6/25/2015
Amendment to Law Governing Special Economic Zones This decree amends the law that regulates special economic zones by establishing the process for their creation, setting forth commissions under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister to manage such zones, and delineating the State's ownership of resources found within these zones, among other changes Article 27 of the Constitution authorizes the State to manage the country's economy; amending a law that regulates special economic zones seems to fall within this authority 6/25/2015
Decree Increasing Pensions Starting July 2015 This decree increases eligible pensions by 10 percent starting July 1, 2015. Multiple provisions in the Constitution, including Articles 83 and 128, authorize the state to provide for appropriate pension levels. This decree thus falls within this authority. 6/28/2015
Ratification of Amended 2015-16 Budget This is a ratification of the amended 2015-16 budget with a projected deficit of 8.9% of GDP. Total expenditure is estimated to be LE868 billion. Total public revenues are estimated to be LE622.2 billion. Total expenditure on social programs is estimated to be LE429 billion. Article 124 of the Constitution sets forth the House of Representatives as the preeminent body setting forth the state budget. In the absence of a parliament, legislative authority is temporarily enjoyed by the executive. 7/2/2015
Tahya Masr Fund Decree This decree establishes the Tahya Masr fund as an independent fund under the jurisdiction of the cabinet, but with special oversight by the president. Article 27 of the Constitution grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; setting forth the logistics for the donation fund to which Egyptians can provide support to the developing nation-state seems to fall within the broad grant of economic authority handed down to the state. 7/12/2015
Electricity Regulatory Agency Law This decree reorganizes the structure of the country's electricity regulatory and consumer protection agency. Article 32 of the Constitution mandates that the State preserve and effectively exploit the country's resources; reorganizing the country's electricity regulatory agency seems to fall within this authority 7/12/2015
Amendment Extending Power of Suez Canal Authority This decree enables the Suez Canal Authority to establish its own private shareholding companies. Article 43 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to protect, develop, and maintain the Suez Canal; granting the Suez Canal Authority power to establish shareholding companies may arguably fall under this provision, although it raises questions on the distinction between the government and the private economy. 7/16/2015
Establishment of Economic Zone for Suez Canal This decree establishes a 460-square-kilometer economic zone for the Suez Canal to help develop an international industrial and logistics hub that is meant to attract foreign investment. Under Article 43 of the Constitution, the state has the authority to develop the Suez Canal sector as a "distinguished economic center"; creating an economic zone falls within this authority. 8/11/2015
Amendment to Sinai Integrated Development Law This decree amends the Sinai Integrated Development Law to allow only Egyptian individuals born to Egyptian parents and Egyptian companies fully owned by Egyptians to own property and land in Sinai. The amendments also allow Egyptians of dual nationality and non-Egyptians to own only buildings and only after approval of the Defense and Interior Ministries and the General Intelligence Authority. Article 78 of the Constitution mandates that the state regulate the use of state land; there are questions, however, on whether limiting ownership based on nationality violates the rights of residents. 8/16/2015
Amendment to Income Tax Law This decree lowers the tax ceiling on income taxes. The decree also makes last year's temporary five percent wealth tax, which initially was meant to last three years, to last one year, effectively ending it. Article 27 of the Constitution mandates that the state implement a fair taxation system, which, according to Article 38, is meant to develop State resources and achieve social justice and development. The remainder of Article 38 also grants the state the authority to issue laws that regulate the tax system; these amendments thus seem to fall within this authority. 8/20/2015
Amendment to the Illegal Gains Law These amendments state that a guardian must be appointed to preserve the value of confiscated illicit gains. The amendments also establish the process for revenue made on the illicit gains and assets. Per Article 218 of the Constitution, the state shall fight corruption and take measures accordingly; managing illicit gains, as authorized by these amendments, seems to fall within this authority. There are questions, however, about whether the new process will be effective in recovering the significant assets in question. 8/23/2015
Amendment to Insurance Supervision and Control Law This amendment to the Insurance Supervision and Control Law authorizes the prime minister to establish government insurance funds Article 17 of the Constitution guarantees that the state will provide insurance services and Article 27 grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; tightening laws related to insurance could arguably fall within this authority. 8/25/2015
Grant of Ten-Percent Bonus to Workers This provision grants a ten-percent bonus to state employees per specific guidelines. Article 27 of the Constitution governs economic issues and it is likely that determining the salaries and bonuses of government employees falls under this broad authority. 9/13/2015
Taxes on Travel Tickets This decree increases the tax on business- and first-class airplane tickets to LE400 and the tax on economy-class tickets to LE150. Article 27 of the Constitution empowers the state to set forth a fair tax system; Article 38 adds that the tax system should develop state resources and achieve social justice and economic development. A decree which increases the tax on travel in an attempt to raise revenue seemingly falls within this grant of authority. 10/8/2015
Amendment to Law on the Protection of the Nile River This decree sets forth a one-year prison sentence and/or LE50,000-200,000 fine for forms of environmental pollution impacting the Nile River. Article 44 of the Constitution mandates that the state protect the Nile River; setting forth punitive measures for those who pollute the river thus seems to fall within this authority. 10/8/2015
Amendment to Environment Law This decree amends the Environment Law with a number of provisions, including establishing funds to conduct environmental preservation research and projects, identifying components of the environmental protection fund, and placing constraints upon coal imports. Article 46 of the Constitution sets forth environmental protection as a national duty; enabling the State to take measures to further guarantee environmental preservation thus falls within this authority. 10/25/2015
Amendment to the Family Insurance Law This decree amends the Family Insurance Law as it pertains to the family insurance fund, specifically changing some of the calculations and distribution procedures. Article 17 of the Constitution guarantees that the state will provide insurance services and Article 27 grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; amending the family insurance law thus seems to fall within this authority. 11/15/2015
Amendment to Social Insurance Laws This decree amends the Social Insurance Laws and particularly focuses on making changes to the subscription fees entailed. Article 17 of the Constitution and Article 9 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights together obligate the state to ensure that social insurance services are available, thus facilitating the passing of this law. 11/24/2015
Authorization of Creation of Shareholding Companies This decree authorizes public law legal persons to establish shareholding companies upon approval from the cabinet. This decree presumably falls within the provisions of the Shareholding Companies Law. 12/31/2015


DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
University Law An amendment which mandates that university heads & department heads be appointed by the President. The amendment also allows the President to terminate university heads upon approval of the Supreme Council of Universities “if he/she violates his/her duties towards the university and/or their presidential responsibilities.” Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities; allowing the President the authority to appoint university leadership raises questions as to whether universities can maintain that independence appropriately. The broad language of this provision also raises questions as to whether it will be used to implicate the rights of university and department heads to freedom of expression, enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 6/24/2014
Traffic Law This law involves new amendments to ensure safety on the road in response to a heightened amount of vehicular accidents, including punishments for those who drive while under the influence, individuals who drive without a license, and individuals who litter while on the road. The State, specifically the police (in Article 206 of the Constitution), has a generic duty to ensure the safety and security of the citizens. Ensuring that the roads are safe is a means by which to enhance this sense of security. 7/5/2014
Penal Code Amendment This amendment to the Penal Code penalizes the receipt of foreign funding, arms, or equipment with life imprisonment and the payment of a fine. A death sentence may also be issued if the accused in question is a civil servant. While Article 86 of the Constitution allows the State to take measures to protect national security, Article 65 preserves the rights of citizens to freedom of expression and Article 75 enshrines the right to form non-governmental organizations that have the right to practice their activities freely. By placing broad foreign funding provisions on all citizens alike, the State paves the way for potential crackdown against citizens and NGO’s in a manner that violates their constitutionally-enshrined rights. The broad language of the provisions suggest that anyone who receives foreign funding, including journalists, social workers, and corporate employees, may be subject to the heightened punitive measures laid forth by this provision. In addition to implicating Egypt’s domestic duties, such legislation violates the country’s international legal duties under Articles 19, 21, and 22 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 9/21/2014
Azhar Law This decree sets forth punishments that include expulsion and removal of students and teachers at Azhar University if they are found to impede in the educational process or detract from the institution’s prestige. As per Article 7 of the Constitution, Al-Azhar is an independent institution; further, Article 21 of the Constitution reiterates that universities are independent institutions as well. While this law grants Al-Azhar its own authority to deal with students as it sees fit, there are serious implications in allowing school administrators to remove students and teachers for their activities that include potential violations of the freedoms of thought, opinion, and expression as enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution. The possibility of removing students and teachers for their political inclinations could potentially violate both Egypt’s domestic and international legal duties under the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 10/23/2014
Extradition Law This decree grants the President the authority to transfer non-Egyptian defendants on trial or post-conviction to their countries in order to be tried or in order to serve their sentences. The Prosecutor-General must submit the extradition request and it must be approved by the Cabinet. Typically, extradition requests are governed by bilateral treaties between nations. Egypt however, does not have many bilateral extradition treaties; for this reason, this new Extradition Law is likely to govern a potentially-wide scope of nations. Article 151 grants the President the authority to represent the nation when it comes to foreign affairs and Article 155 grants him the authority to issue pardons and general amnesty contingent on parliamentary approval; the approval of extradition requests may potentially be implicated among these rights. There are some concerns however that the law grants the Prosecutor-General and the Cabinet extra-constitutional powers that would otherwise be unavailable to them, giving them the opportunity to make judicial determinations that would generally be reserved to a court of law. 11/12/2014
Ratification of the Arab Convention on Information Technology Crimes This Convention sets forth a number of punitive measures from crimes committed using technology and in the cyber sphere. While the Convention covers legitimate sources of cyber crime including incitement to terrorism and online fraud, the Convention also criminalizes porn and publication of government information, among other categories, the definition of which can be broadened to effectively turn into a violation of freedom of speech and expression. Under Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the State maintains a duty to protect the rights of citizens to freedom of expression; intervening in the cyber sphere to a heightened degree may thus directly implicate and potentially violate this right. 11/14/2014
Amendment to Criminal Procedure Code This is an amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code to ensure that the work conducted by investigative judges in criminal cases take no longer than 6 months to complete. Articles 96-98 of the Constitution mandate that every accused individual be granted a fair trial and due process rights. These same rights are reiterated in Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. Ensuring that investigations take no longer than 6 months are meant to serve as a measure to ensure that due process is served in a timely manner, thus bringing the criminal investigative procedure up to more efficient standards. It is unclear however if having a six month maximum is arbitrary and whether this efficiency will come at the expense of a full investigation. 11/18/2014
Approval of Church License This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Sohag. Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 11/18/2014
Amendment to the Law Governing the Protection of Manuscripts This amendment to the law governing the protection of manuscripts criminalizes the illegal trafficking and trade of manuscripts Articles 48-50 of the Constitution establish every citizen’s right to culture, alongside the duty of the State to protect this cultural heritage. Ensuring that historic manuscripts are preserve and kept within the country falls within this duty of the State to such protection. 12/15/2014
Electoral Districts Law This law divides the country into individual candidate districts & electoral list districts, paving the way for the upcoming parliamentary elections. Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to allow the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution to take place. Article 230 mandates that electoral procedures commence within a period not exceeding 6 months since the ratification of the Constitution; there are legal questions as to whether this period lapsed before the beginning of procedures (there is disagreement on what constitutes “procedures”). 12/22/2014
Amendment to Law Governing Expropriation of Property This amendment to the law governing the expropriation of property seeks to streamline the process of the expropriation of property for public uses and the reimbursement of individuals whose property is taken by the government. Article 35 of the Constitution allows the State to expropriate public property if in the public interest and for its benefit, and as long as fair compensation is to be paid. The right to property is one of the most controversial rights; although it is neither referred to in the ICCPR or ICESCR, it is recognized in Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that no one shall be “arbitrarily deprived of his property.” Although the Egyptian law regarding expropriation currently only allows expropriation in the public interest, thus arguably constitutional and internationally-acceptable, some concerns regarding the possibly-unequal implementation of the pertinent criteria do remain. 1/13/2015
Pardon on Occasion of January 25 This presidential decree involves a pardon for those with life sentences who’ve been jailed for 15 years and those with sentences above 6 months who’ve been jailed for at least half that time. A committee will meet to determine which prisoners meet the criteria laid out by the law; felonies & misdemeanors harming the government, and crimes related to explosives, bribery, forgery, obstructing traffic, weapons, drugs, construction, investment by corporations, Child Law, and money-laundering will not be covered by the pardon. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become custom in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are issued, the criteria for pardons, and the implementation of these pardons. Historically, political prisoners have not been granted presidential pardons, raising questions on the process. 1/13/2015
Decree Setting Forth Discipline for University Professors This decree gives university presidents the power to refer to professors to disciplinary committees for investigation if they participate in, incite, or help others commit violence on university premises, if they participate in political activities in universities, or if they bring weapons on campus. Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities; allowing university leadership the right to discipline professors for their actions raises questions on the relationship between the university and the State and the degree to which this independence is actually guaranteed. Furthermore, the broad language of the decree raises questions as to whether it will be used to implicate the rights of university and department heads to freedom of expression, enshrined in Article 65 of the Constitution and Article 19 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 1/16/2015
Amendment to Child Law: This amendment allows foster families to take in children whose parentage is not known at the age of three months, instead of two years, which it has historically been. Article 11 of the Constitution places a duty on the State to protect childhood. Expanding on this, Article 80 of the Constitution, along with Article 24 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights, place a duty on the State to work towards the best interests of children in a number of arenas including the right to family and alternative care. Facilitating an earlier age of foster care seems to fall within this authority. 1/24/2015
Approval of Church License: This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Montaza, Alexandria. Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 1/24/2015
Amendment to Child Law This amendment changes the age for penal provisions in the Child Law from 21 years to 18 years. Article 80 of the Constitution defines a child as anyone under the age of 18 and mandates that the State protect the rights of children. Ensuring that all provisions of the Child Law apply to children below the age of 18 seems to fall within this authority, although in a country with a politicized, non-transparent judicial system, it is unclear whether the cause of justice will ultimately be served by this provision. 2/8/2015
Amendment to the Social Security Law This amendment expands the definition of "orphans" to include children whose fathers and/or parents are unknown. The amendment also grants the prime minister the authority to create some new social security programs based on the recommendations of the minister of finance and other ministers and within the confines of exisitng laws. Article 17 empowers the State to establish social insurance and social security programs; expanding the category of individuals subject to social security and creating new programs seems to fall within this authority. 3/10/2015
Amendment to Criminal Procedure Code This amendment extends the statute of limitations for bribery and embezzlement. Periods of limitation begin when the state employee committing the crime was removed from his post, rather than when the crime was actually committed Article 218 of the Constitution mandates that the State fight corruption; extending the statute of limitations for crimes of bribery and embezzlement seems to fall within this authority, as long as such process meets due process requirements and international standards of justice. 3/12/2015
Papal Elections Law This law effectively cancels the previous 1957 law governing the electon of the Coptic Pope. The law allows for the election of an interim pope who then establishes a committee that is composed of 10% of the Holy Synod to choose the pope via lottery. The law widens the voter base compared to the previous 1957 law. Article 3 of the Constitution grants Christians the right to choose their own spiritual leaders. A law governing the election of the Pope seems to fall within this authority. However, there are concerns that the law at hand discriminates between Coptic citizens, limits the potential base of nominees, makes distinctions within the voter base, and allows an arguably-disproportionate influence of religious figures on determining the voter base. Entities like EIPR have criticized the law for potential discrimination violations, embodied in provisions like Article 53. 3/23/2015
Approval of Church License This decree is a license approving the building of an Evangelical Church in Maadi, Cairo Article 64 of the Constitution states that the building of houses of worship will be governed by the law. Under existing legislation including the Hamayouni Law, the Azabi Decree, and Presidential Decree 291, churches can only be built with a presidential decree. Despite a constitutional article stating the freedom of belief is absolute and that every citizen has the right to freedom of worship, laws continue to differentiate between the religious rights afforded to Muslims and non-Muslims. Such inequity raises questions on whether the state is meeting its requirements under Article 64 of the Constitution and Article 18 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 4/6/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Ramadan This presidential decree pardons 165 detainees, many of which were charged with Protest Law violations Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become customary in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which they are issued, their criteria, and their implementation. 6/17/2015
Amendment to the Intellectual Property Law This decree amends the Intellectual Property Law by, among other things, setting forth that property must be novel, uniform, and stable to be afforded protection. Article 69 of the Constitution empowers the State to protect all types of intellectual property; amending the protections enshrined in the law seems to fall within this authority. 6/25/2015
Electoral Districts Law This law sets forth 205 electoral districts for individual candidates and 4 electoral districts for party lists for the upcoming parliamentary elections. Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Setting forth the electoral districts necessary to achieve this goal thus falls within this authority. This is the second iteration of the Electoral Districts Law, after an earlier edition was initially struck down by the Supreme Constitutional Court for failing to reflect "fair representation" as required by Article 102 of the Constitution. 7/9/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Eid al-Fitr and the July Revolution This presidential decree grants a pardon to certain prisoners on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr and the July Revolution. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become custom in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are issued, the criteria for pardons, and the implementation of these pardons. Historically, political prisoners have not been granted presidential pardons, raising questions on the process. 7/12/2015
Cancellation of Supreme Constitutional Court Decree This decree repeals an earlier decree ratified by former interim President Adly Mansour that required the Supreme Constitutional Court to rule on the constitutionality of election laws within five days of a challenge. Article 192 of the Constitution notes that the law will govern the competencies and procedures of the Supreme Constitutional Court; thus, issuing an amendment to the law governing the review of election laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court seems to fall within this authority. 7/28/2015
Amendments to House of Representatives Law This amendment updates the law to allow the incoming parliament to be made up of 120 members elected via party lists, 448 members elected as independents, and 28 appointed members. Transitional provisions in Articles 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Establishing the House of Representatives' membership thus falls within this authority. 8/1/2015
Amendments to Political Rights Law This amendment updates the law to set maximum campaign spending limits: LE2.5 million for 15-member lists (plus an additional LE1 million for runoffs, if necessary) and LE7.5 milion for 45-member lists (LE3 million for runoffs) Transitional provisions 228-230 of the Constitution pave the way for the legal scheme necessary to conduct the first presidential and parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution. Setting forth the candidacy and voting requirements and rights available to citizens thus falls within this authority. 8/1/2015
Pardon of 46 Sudanese Citizens This decree pardons 46 Sudanese citizens who had illegally crossed into Egypt and deports them back to Sudan. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons; this decree thus falls within this authority. 8/6/2015
Pardon on the Occasion of Eid al-Adha This decree pardons 100 detainees, among them Sanaa Seif and Yara Sallam, detained under the Protest Law, and the Al Jazeera journalists detained in the Mariott Cell case. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become customary in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which they are issued, their criteria, and their implementation. While pardons for political prisoners have been rare, this is one of the first and most prominent incidents in which such prisoners have been granted release. The move came ahead of President Sisi's visit to the United Nations General Assembly in New York. Although the pardon was praised by various observers, serious concerns remain about the judicial and legal system and the reality that a pardon does not cure deep institutional challenges in need of vital reform. 9/23/2015
Pardon of 20 Sudanese Citizens This decree pardons 20 Sudanese citizens. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to issue pardons; this decree thus falls within this authority. 10/7/2015
Punitive Measures for Exam Leaks This decree establishes a one-year prison sentence and a LE20,000-50,000 fine for persons who print, publish, broadcast, or promote the questions or answers to school exams with an intent to cheat on or disrupt exams. Article 19 of the Constitution sets forth the right to an education and authorizes the state to supervise public and private schools. Regulating the examination process, as in the provision at hand, arguably falls within this authority. 10/7/2015
Amendments to Prison Law This decree extends basic solitary confinement from one week to 15 days, allows visits by the National Council for Human Rights only after the approval of the prosecutor-general, allows the use of force by prison authorities to ensure that prison regulations are met, and allows mothers to keep their children with them until the age of four. Article 56 of the Constitution states that prisons will be regulated by the law. While a number of the amendments in this law help to further human dignity and protect human health, a few provisions also problematically expand the authority of prison authorities to use force, thus potentially violating the rights of detainees. Additionally, placing contraints on the National Council to conduct prison visits limits the regulation of prisons and contributes to an environment in which violations to the rights to dignity, to be free from torture, and to freedom as guaranteed by the Constitution and international law may occur without appropriate redress. 10/25/2015
Amendment to Law Governing Mayors This decree amends the law governing mayors and sets forth the membership and decision-making processes of security-related committees. Article 242 of the Constitution states that the existing system of municipal governance will continue for five years from the date of the ratification of the Constitution; amendments to the existing laws thus seem to fall within this authority. 11/17/2015
University Hospital Employee Benefits Decree This decree extends the benefits currently available to members of the medical profession to employees of university hospitals, including pharmacists. Article 13 of the Constitution protects workers' rights; ensuring that employees receive benefits commensurate with their qualifications thus seems to fall within this authority. 12/17/2015


DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
Border Tunnel Ban & Police Identification Law This law criminalizes the digging and use of tunnels at the country’s border areas to contact foreign entities or organizations or to smuggle persons or goods. The law also includes two provisions which criminalizes the forging of police and military identification cards and the imitation of their uniforms. Article 86 of the Constitution states that the protection of national security is a duty of the State. This law seemingly exists within that authority although there are some concerns on how the border tunnel ban will impact the country’s immigration laws and the smuggling/trafficking of individuals who are already in vulnerable situations (governed by Article 89 of the Constitution and in light of Egypt’s ratification of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children). 7/3/2014
Amendment to the Armed Forces Act This law raises military pensions by 10% without a minimum or maximum pension rate and amends other provisions of the Armed Forces Act that pertain to insurance and retirement benefits. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 7/10/2014
Armed Forces Amendments These amendments implement some changes to the provisions governing the rank of officers, the guidelines regulating reserve officers, and the technical schools for military members. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. However, serious questions exist in light of President Sisi’s former military affiliation and whether these protections and enhanced benefits to the military come as a product of nepotism that would violate the principles of the Constitution. 9/17/2014
Amendment to the Weapons and Ammunition Law This amendment makes the approval of the Ministry of Defense mandatory for all weapons deals. Previously, this law only required the approval of the Ministry of Interior; with this amendment, the law makes the approval of the Ministry of Defense an additional requirement. While there is no explicitly relevant language in the Constitution on this matter, there are questions as to whether such an amendment grants the Ministry of Defense an added level of authority that strengthens the institution in a disproportionate manner and thus potentially detracts from the democratic principles of the Constitution. 9/30/2014
Amendment to the Police Authority Law This amendment makes the Military Judiciary the only body with authority to try crimes committed by police recruits. Article 204 of the Constitution gives the military judiciary the sole authority to adjudicate on all crimes pertaining to the Armed Forces, officers, and their equivalents. While not explicitly referencing police affiliates, the article limits the bringing of citizens and any non-military personnel afore the military courts. Thus, this law raises concerns because allowing the military courts to try crimes committed by police recruits brings a significant subset of the population under the authority of a body which is not necessarily transparent and is not bound by the same due process requirements of civilian courts. The more commonly that cases are brought before the military courts, the more likely that due process violations (including the right to a fair trial under Article 96 of the Constitution and Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights) are implicated. 10/9/2014
Declaration of a State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decision declares a state of emergency in the north and center of the Sinai Peninsula for three months, with a curfew in place between 5 pm and 7 am every day. The decision also authorizes the army and police to take all necessary measures to tackle the dangers of terrorism and terrorist financing in the region. As per Article 86, the State is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the Constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament however, the Cabinet approves the state of emergency instead and when the parliament is elected, it must reapprove the state. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article exists alongside the 1958 Emergency Law to provide the President with the authority to declare a state of emergency; the President’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this grant of power. 10/24/2014
Military Judiciary Decree This decree allows military forces to join the police in securing public institutions for a period of two years. The decree that all attacks on public institutions covered by the decree will be considered attacks on military institutions and will thus be tried afore a military court. While the State enjoys an Article 86 authority to ensure national security, allowing any attack on a public institution to be tried by a military court is an expansion of the current constitutional limitation on the military judiciary in Article 204. There are thus serious concerns that subject citizens to military courts in this manner will deprive citizens of their constitutionally-enshrined due process rights as per Article 96 and as per international law in Article 14 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. 10/27/2014
Appointment of National Security Advisors This decree appoints former Planning and International Cooperation Minister Fayza Aboul Naga as a Presidential Advisor for National Security and former Minister of Interior Ahmed Gamal El-Din as a Presidential Advisor for Security Affairs. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. While there is no doubt that the President has the right to seek such advice, there are concerns that having a large number of appointed individuals who were not democratically elected and granting such individuals extra-constitutional powers of influence detracts from the overall democratic process. Additionally, both of the affiliations of these advisors as individuals previously involved in crackdown on citizen rights raises questions on whether they will thus provide the President with advice that violates the rights of citizens to freedom of expression and assembly as per Articles 75 and 73 of the Constitution as well as Articles 19 and 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 11/5/2014
Decree Setting Forth the Delineation of Borders This decree regulates the country’s border regions for security purposes, categorizing some regions as “prohibited” and others as “restricted.” Article 86 of the Constitution lays out the protection of national security as a duty; with a spike in the number of bombings and security issues in the Sinai and other border areas, the country must take measures to ensure that its citizens are protected from threats. There is some concern however that measures like these are overreaching and potentially violate the right of citizens to freedom of movement and emigration as established by Article 62 of the Constitution. This comes on the heels of a broader fear that the over-militarization of land will lead to a general encroachment of rights and freedoms under the guise of national security. 11/29/2014
Amendment to Armed Forces’ Pension and Retirement Law This decree introduces gradual increases to the percentages in pensions and retirement benefits to members of the Armed Forces. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man however, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 12/4/2014
Decree Creating New Police Rank This decree sets forth the creation of a new police rank with arrest powers; policemen in this rank will be between the ages of 19 and 23 and must have completed preparatory school. Article 206 of the Constitution ensures that the State guarantee that the country’s police force is able to perform its duties. Creating more law enforcement positions may arguably fall within this category; however, there are serious concerns that creating new police officers, rather than reforming the Ministry of Interior and providing more adequate training for existing police officers, will only result in a furthering of the security state and increased violations accordingly. 12/15/2014
Decree Increasing Military Pensions This decree increases the rate at which 2007 military pensions are calculated by 5 percent. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military man, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits however. 12/22/2014
Creation of “Crisis Cell” This decision establishes a “Crisis Cell” to respond to the escalated situation regarding the kidnap and murder of Egyptian Copts in Libya. As per Article 88, the State has a duty to protect Egyptians abroad; the creation of a government entity to react to the kidnap and murder of Egyptian citizens outside of the country seems to exist within this authority. 1/5/2015
Awarding of Medals for Police Martyrs This decree awards medals to 177 police martyrs and medals of excellence to 190 others. Article 16 of the Constitution bestows the State with the duty to honor martyrs; honoring police martyrs seems to fall within this authority. 1/20/2015
Terrorist Entities Law This decree grants the Public Prosecution the authority to issue both a Terrorist Entities list and a Terrorist list, which designate organizations and individuals, respectively, per previous criminal verdicts or as determined by the court system. The decree also grants “competent state bodies” the authority to dissolve a terrorist entity, freeze its activities, close all affiliate buildings, ban meetings and all membership, stop its financial activities, freeze its property and assets, ban all related slogans, and temporarily deprive the individual or organization of his/her or its political rights. Article 86 of the Constitution establishes the duty of the State to protect national security and the role of the law in ensuring that said security is guaranteed. Granting the Public Prosecution the authority to designate terrorists and terrorist entities seemingly falls within that grant of authority; however, there are serious concerns that such designations may be used to impede on the freedom of assembly, speech, and expression rights of citizens as guaranteed in Articles 65 and 73 and provisions of the ICCPR. 2/24/2015
Amendment to Penal Code on Border Tunnels This decree amends the Penal Code to make the punishment for the digging of border tunnels life imprisonment. Article 86 of the Constitution grants the State the authority to uphold national security; criminalizing the digging of border tunnels, which are arguably a threat to national security, seems to fall within this authority as long as the State's other duties with regards to the rights of the individuals in question are ensured. 4/12/2015
Extension of the State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decree extends the state of emergency in certain regions of Northern Sinai for an additional three months. Per Article 86, the state is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament, however, the cabinet approves the state of emergency instead, with Parliament reviewing the declaration upon its election and seating. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article, along with the 1958 Emergency Law provides the president with the authority to declare a state of emergency. The President’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this power and follows the original declaration of a state of emergency in October 2014 and an extension in January 2015. 4/25/2015
Decree Increasing Military Pensions by 10 Percent This decree increases eligible military pensions by 10 percent starting on July 1, 2015. Article 202 reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military officer, there are, however, some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. Military pensions are set forth by Law No. 90 of 1975. 6/28/2015
Decree Allowing Formation of Security Companies This decree authorizes the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Defense, and General Intelligence to establish security companies to protect public facilities and public funds. Article 86 of the Constitution states that the protection of national security is a duty of the state and thus, actions taken within this broad grant of authority may be appropriate. There is fear, however ,that allowing government security bodies to establish private security companies will further militarize of the economy and raise questions on nepotism and other corruption-related financial matters. 7/12/2015
Decree Governing Judicial Committees for Military Officers This decree amends the law governing military judicial committees. The amendments include a provision making the deliberations of the judicial committees secret and allowing appeals in some cases. Article 204 of the Constitution gives the military judiciary the sole authority to adjudicate all crimes pertaining to the Armed Forces, officers, and their equivalents. Due process concerns with military trials abound; a decree setting forth the secrecy of the internal deliberations of judicial committees for military offcers may be issued for the purpose of national security, but may raise concerns on transparency. 7/12/2015
Extension of the State of Emergency in Northern Sinai This decree extends the state of emergency in certain regions of North Sinai for an additional three months. Per Article 86, the state is granted the authority to ensure national security. Typically, Article 154 of the Constitution would mandate that the House of Representatives approve a state of emergency; due to the absence of a parliament, however, the cabinet approves the state of emergency instead, with Parliament reviewing the declaration upon its election and seating. States of emergency can only be renewed for three-month periods. This article, along with the 1958 Emergency Law provides the president with the authority to declare a state of emergency. The president’s decree when it comes to the Sinai Peninsula comes within this power and follows the original declaration of a state of emergency in October 2014 and two extensions in January 2015 and April 2015. 7/25/2015
Anti-Terrorism Law This law replaces the Penal Code's definition for terrorism, expands the number of terrorist crimes and imposes new penalties, sets forth a number of procedural guidelines in the investigation and trial of alleged terrorist crimes, and empowers the institutions of the state to take measures to combat alleged terrorism. Article 86 of the Constitution grants the state the authority to uphold national security; a law that implements counterterrorism strategies and penalizes terrorist acts seems to fall within this authority. However, because the law also features a broad definition of terrorism and incorporates a wide scope of activities, there is fear that its implementation will also bring violations to the rights to freedom of expression and assembly under domestic and international law. 8/15/2015
Decree Increasing the Maximum Limit of Military Pensions by 250 Percent This decree increases the maximum limit of military pensions by 250 percent. Article 202 of the Constitution reserves the details pertaining to the service, promotion, and retirement of members of the Armed Forces to the law; these new amendments come within this authority. In light of the enhanced powers and benefits granted to the military and the background of President Sisi as a former military officer, there are some questions as to whether the military as an institution is being granted disproportional benefits. 8/19/2015


DecreeDescriptionLegal ContextDate
Framework Agreement with Cyprus This decree represents a presidential ratification of a framework agreement with Cyprus providing for the co-exploitation of the hydrocarbon reserves in the Egyptian and Cypriot Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) which extend across the midline. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a framework agreement with a foreign country like Cyprus falls within this authority. 9/11/14
Approval of World Bank Loan This decree ratifies a World Bank comprehensive financing loan worth about $300 million. Generally, the President cannot approve loans or funding approval without explicit mention in the state budget and approval from the House of Representatives as per Article 127 of the Constitution; because of the absence of a House of Representatives however, it is likely that this action may be allowed. It may also be potentially covered under the President’s authority to conclude treaties and agreements under Article 151 of the Constitution. 10/30/14
Decree Regarding US-Egypt Cooperation on Water This decree approves an amendment to a cooperation agreement between the United States and Egypt with regards to water and sanitation services. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the country in all foreign relations and to conclude treaties and agreements accordingly, albeit after the approval of the House of Representatives. Because Egypt does not yet have a House of Representatives, the President seems to be acting within his authority here. Article 79 of the Constitution also grants every citizen the right to clean water; taking measures to regulate water and sanitation services seems to ensure that the right is guaranteed. 11/24/14
Five Decrees Facilitating Cooperation with the United States These five decrees facilitate cooperation with the United States in the fields of electricity generation, science and technology, higher education, agriculture, trade, and investments. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; agreements which facilitate cooperation with the United States on a number of important economic and social levels falls within this authority. 12/16/14
Cooperation Agreement with Mauritius This decree facilitates cooperation with Mauritius on investment-related matters. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement which facilitates investment with Mauritius falls within this grant of power. 12/18/14
Agreements with China Strategic Framework Agreement signed with China, along with a number of economic agreements. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; framework and economic agreements with a foreign country like China seems to fall within this authority. 12/22/14
Amendment to US-Egypt Agreement on Utilities This is an amendment to the existing cooperation agreement between the United States and Egypt with regards to Egyptian utilities and amenities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement which involves cooperation with a foreign nation on utilities and amenities seems to fall within this authority. 1/1/15
Agreement with South Sudan This is an agreement between Egypt and South Sudan to ensure that individuals with a diplomatic passport need not apply for a visa in advance of traveling between the two countries. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement ensuring the strength of diplomatic relations with a newly established nation seems to fall within this authority. 1/16/15
Ratification of Agreement with the United Nations Population Fund This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the United Nations Population Fund regarding the role that the institution will play inside the country. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the role of the UNFPA in Egypt seems to fall within this grant of power and also relates to the duty of the State to contribute to the country’s economic development as laid out in Article 27. 1/16/15
Ratification of Agreement with the World Food Programme This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the United Nations’ World Food Programme in order to facilitate the creation of fixed assets for poorer communities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the offering of UN-services to Egyptian citizens seems to fall within this authority & also relates to the duty of the State to contribute to the economic system as laid out in Article 27. 1/16/15
Ratification of Loan Agreement with the Khalifa Fund: This is a ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and the United Arab Emirates’ Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development in the amount of $200 million. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement facilitating business relations seems to fall within this authority. 1/16/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Education: This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation on education. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating educational opportunities seems to fall within this authority and within the duty of the State to provide educational opportunities for its citizens as per Articles 19-21. 1/22/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Tourism This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation and investment in the Egyptian tourism sector. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the growth and development of the tourism sector seems to fall within this authority. 2/11/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Research and Technology This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating cooperation on research and technology. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating research and technological advancement seems to fall within this authority. 2/12/15
Ratification of US-Egypt Agreement on Trade and Investment This is an agreement between the United States and Egypt facilitating trade and investment. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating trade and investment seems to fall within this authority. 2/26/15
Ratification of the International Convention On the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships This is a ratification of the 2001 International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships. Article 45 of the Constitution commits the State to protecting its waterways; ratifying an international agreement that seeks to limit the harm that ship systems have on waterways seems to fall within this authority. Furthermore, Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements like the one at hand. 3/19/15
Ratification of World Bank Loan on Natural Gas This decree ratifies a World Bank $500 million loan agreement to fund a natural gas distribution system meant to benefit 1.5 million households currently relying on older means of gas distribution. Article 151 of the constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement facilitating the creation of a natural gas project seems to fall within this authority. Additionally, Article 32 of the constitution sets forth the right of all citizens to natural resources, alongside the duty of the state to preserve and effectively exploit such resources. Signing a loan agreement that makes natural resource use more effective can arguably fall within the State's duty. 4/23/15
Ratification of Agreement with the World Food Programme This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the World Food Programme to improve living conditions for poor families, especially those residing in the Red Sea area. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating a partnership between Egypt and the World Food Programme seems to fall within this authority. 5/14/15
Ratification of Agreement with the International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation to finance the importation of basic commodities. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the importation of basic commodities with the help of a foreign entity seems to fall within this authority. 5/21/15
Ratification of Agreement with the UAE on the Islamic Art Museum This is a ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the UAE governing the renovation of the Islamic Art Museum. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating the renovation of a local museum with the help of a foreign nation seems to fall within this authority. 5/21/15
Ratification of Saudi Arabian Loan for Electricity Expansion Project This is a ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia worth 150 million Saudi Riyal to expand an electricity generation station in Damietta Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating a loan agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia seems to fall under this authority. 6/11/15
Ratification of Egypt-Albania Customs Agreement This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and Albania governing customs cooperation and other forms of mutual assistance. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a customs agreement between Egypt and Albania seems to fall within this authority 7/2/15
Ratification of Agreement between Egypt and Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development regarding an electricity expansion project in Cairo. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an electricity expansion agreement between Egypt and the Kuwait Fund seems to fall within this authority. 7/16/15
Ratification of Egypt-Japan Aqueducts Agreement This is the ratification of an LE365 million agreement between Egypt and Japan approving the establishment of aqueducts; this agreement had initially been signed on March 14. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement on the establishment of aqueducts by a foreign entity falls within this authority. 8/13/15
Ratification of Egypt-ILO Agreement This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Labor Organization on expanding the job opportunities for Egyptian youth. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement facilitating labor falls within this authority. 8/27/15
Ratification of Agreement Between Egypt and the European Bank This is the ratification of a loan agreement between Egypt and the European Bank on a sanitation services project in Kafr al-Sheikh. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; a loan agreement on sanitation services between Egypt and the European Bank falls within this authority 9/10/15
Ratification of Agreement between Egypt and the International Fund for Agricultural Development This is the ratification of an agreement between Egypt and the International Fund for Agricultural Development to finance an agricultural investment project and to raise the standard of living for Egyptians. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement on agricultural development between Egypt and an international body falls within this authority. 9/20/15
Approval of Loan Agreement with Italy This decree approves a concessional loan agreement between Egypt and Italy to improve the system of sustainable land ownership in Minya and Fayoum. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements. An agreement approving a loan between Egypt and Italy to enable economic development seems to fall within this authority and additionally fulfills the state's duty to protect and develop agricultural land under Article 29. 10/8/15
Amendment to Oil Exploration and Exploitation Agreement This decree amends the Oil Exploration and Exploitation Agreement in Northern Alexandria with the BP and Rwe Dea AG companies. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements. An agreement enabling oil exploration with foreign companies thus falls within this authority and also relates to Article 32 of the Constitution which enables the exploitation of resources. 10/26/15
Withdrawal of Reservation to the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child This decree withdraws Egypt's prior reservation to the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child as pertains to child marriage. The article that Egypt has previously made a reservation to stated that children may not be married or engaged, and that the signatories to the treaty must take effective measures to ban marriage before the age of 18. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; the withdrawal of a reservation thus falls within this authority. 11/26/15
Approval of World Bank Loan on Social Safety Nets This decree approves a $400 million loan with the World Bank to support social safety nets in Egypt. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement approving a World Bank loan thus seems to fall within this authority. 12/10/15
Ratification of African Development Bank Decree This decree ratifies an African Development Bank decree regarding the allocation of the bank's shares. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the president the authority to represent the state in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement approving this decree seems to fall within this authority. 12/24/15


Decree DescriptionLegal ContextDate
Formation of Supreme Elections Commission This decree sets forth the creation of the Supreme Elections Commission, a body which will undertake the logistical work necessary to host elections for the House of Representatives. Chapter 9 of the Constitution, specifically Articles 208-210, establish the National Elections Commission as the body that will eventually arrange for and manage elections after the completion of the transitionary period. In the immediately transitional period, the Supreme Elections Commission is granted the authority to run elections as per Article 228 of the Constitution. The designation of the body thus falls within the President’s constitutional authority to issue a decree paving the way for the formation of such electoral bodies. 7/15/2014
Appointment of the Head of the State Council This decision appoints Gamal Taha Ismail Nada as the new head of State Council to replace the sitting head who nears the retirement age. The appointment of judges is regulated by the law as per Article 186 of the Constitution. While the Constitution describes the State Council in Article 190, it does not explicitly mention the appointment of its members; the generic appointment power of the President is also enshrined in Article 153 of the Constitution. Overall, this action may be read as an everyday regulatory action well-within the President’s authority. 7/24/2014
Formation of General Secretariat of National Defense Council This decree establishes the General Secretariat of the National Defense Council and lays out the body’s logistical and financial responsibilities accordingly. Article 203 of the Constitution sets forth the foundation of the National Defense Council, not specifically referencing its General Secretariat. The President enjoys generic appointment authority for civil and military employees however as per Article 153 of the Constitution. 8/3/2014
Removal of Judiciary Member This decree removes Judge Waleed Mohamed Rashad Sharaby from his position. The President references Law No. 46 of 1972 on the Judiciary to back his decision to remove judges in some cases, as well as broad appointment authority enshrined in the Constitution. However, because the removed judge Sharaby was known for being affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood in this case, there are some questions on whether the State is implementing punitive measures against non-State-aligned judges. 8/14/2014
Government Workers Law This law is a delegation of power from the President to his Ministers, allowing them authority when it comes to managing upper level government workers and general managers. As per Article 148 of the Constitution, the President may delegate some of his powers to any of his Ministers in the Cabinet. 8/27/2014
Assigning Prime Minister Presidential Authority This is a delegation of power from the President to the Prime Minister, granting him authority to manage state-owned property, the power to grant certain pensions and bonuses, and the right to implement certain provisions of the Censorship Law, among other responsibilities. As per Article 148 of the Constitution, the President may delegate some of his powers to the Prime Minister. 8/27/2014
Formation of Presidential Advisory Board This decree establishes the formation of a presidential advisory board of experts that reports directly to the President with technical and scientific advice. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. While there is no doubt that the President has the right to seek such advice, there are concerns that having a large number of appointed individuals who were not democratically elected and granting such individuals extra-constitutional powers of influence detracts from the overall democratic process. 9/6/2014
Allocation of Land to Drinking Water Authority This decree paves the way for the reallocation of state-owned property to the National Authority for Drinking Water and Sanitation. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating the provision of drinking water and sanitation exists within that grant. 9/16/2014
Recognition of University Students This decree states that all university students with outstanding academic performance should be publicly recognized and paves the way for future scholarships for accomplished students. Article 19 of the Constitution and Article 13 of the International Covenant for Economic, Social, an Cultural Rights both state that every citizen has the right to an education; the creation of future scholarships can potentially contribute to this goal, thus allowing students who may not otherwise continue to pursue their education to do so in a state-funded manner. 9/28/2014
Formation of Presidential Advisory Board on Community Development This decree forms a Presidential Advisory Board that focuses on community development, discussing matters that include poverty and street children. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. While there is no doubt that the President has the right to seek such advice, there are concerns that having a large number of appointed individuals who were not democratically elected and granting such individuals extra-constitutional powers of influence detracts from the overall democratic process. 10/1/2014
Legal Status Grant to Japan-Egypt University This decision by the President grants the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology legal status. Article 21 of the Constitution reads that the State will encourage the establishment of private and non-governmental universities; granting a new university legal status thus seems to further this goal. 10/2/2014
Assigning Finance Minister Authority with Regards to the Social Development Fund This is a grant of authority from the President to the Minister of Finance specific to the Social Development Fund. As per Article 148 of the Constitution, the President may delegate some of his powers to any of his Ministers in the Cabinet. 10/3/2014
Presidential Pardon for Convicts This is a presidential pardon granting early release to some prisoners who do not pose a threat to national security and who have shown good behavior to celebrate the October 6 celebrations. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays have become custom in Egypt, there are concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are selected in light of the fact that political prisoners are almost never granted pardon. 10/9/2014
State-Owned Lands & Reallocation This decision is a reallocation of 5722.5 acres of state-owned land to the General Authority for Rehabilitation Projects and Agricultural Development. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating agricultural development falls within this language. Additionally, Article 29 gives the State the authority to protect agricultural lands. 10/9/2014
Assigning Minister of Defense Presidential Authority This decree is a delegation of power from the President to the Minister of Defense to allow him to meet the logistical and financial needs of the Armed Forces and grant authority to those working under him to accomplish their goals during times of disaster or war. As per Article 148 of the Constitution, the President may delegate some of his powers to any of his Ministers in the Cabinet. 10/23/2014
Appointment of 10 University Deans This is a decision in which the President approves the appointment of 10 different university deans across the country. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 10/23/2014
Appointment of 13 University Deans This is a decree approving the appointment of 13 university deans to universities across the country. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 10/28/2014
Establishment of Committee to Head Global Grain Center This decree establishes the committee to head the Global Grain Center, a national project that is meant to turn Egypt into a global hub for the storage of grain and related products. As per Article 29 on agriculture and Article 27 on the economy, the State is granted authority to take steps to further the country’s economic state; the establishment of a Grain Center may contribute to that goal. 10/28/2014
Amendments Relating to Government Health Workers This decree amends the guidelines governing the affairs of government workers affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Population. Article 18 and 78 of the Constitution guarantee every citizen’s right to health and housing. Ensuring that the Ministry of Health and Population has efficient guidelines to regulate government workers guarantees that these rights will be secure in an at least regulatory and logistical capacity. These rights are also reiterated in Articles 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. 11/18/2014
Amendments to Guidelines Governing Research Centers This decree amends the guidelines regulating the centers, research institutes, and bodies affiliated with the Ministry of Scientific Research. Article 23 of the Constitution sets forth the duty of the State to encourage scientific research. Amending the guidelines governing research centers seems to fall within this constitutional authority. 11/18/2014
Allocation of Land for Urban Use This decree allocates 2300 acres of land on the Alexandria-Matrouh road for urban residential use. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; setting forth land for urban and residential purposes falls within that grant of power. 11/18/2014
Decree Establishing Tourism Committee This decree forms a high-level ministerial committee to develop a comprehensive plan to contend with the country’s tourism-related challenges. Article 27 of the Constitution grants the government the authority to establish an economic system aimed at achieving prosperity; making the most of the country’s tourism sector, which has historically been a significant source of economic revenue, seems to fall within that source of authority. However while Article 153 of the Constitution grants the President general appointment authority, there are questions on whether establishing multiple executive committees detracts from the balance of the separation of powers and grants executive advisors expansive powers beyond what the Constitution envisioned for them. 11/20/2014
Appointment of 13 University Deans This is a decree approving the appointment of 13 university deans. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 11/24/2014
Decrees Removing Judges Three different decrees facilitated the removal of 8 judges and the former Prosecutor General (who served during the Morsi regime). Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. While judges are technically immune to dismissal, certain decrees and laws in the past have facilitated their removal & this decree seems to come within this vaguely defined authorization. 12/4/2014
Accession to the Riyadh Arab Agreement for Judicial Cooperation This decree represents the accession of Egypt to the Riyadh Arab Agreement for Judicial Cooperation. Article 151 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to represent the State in foreign affairs and the right to sign treaties and agreements; an agreement which facilitates cooperation among judges across the globe seems to fall within this framework. 12/4/2014
Allocation of Land to Drinking Water Authority This decree facilitates the allocation of land in Qena to the National Authority for Drinking Water and Sanitation. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating the provision of drinking water and sanitation exists within that grant. 12/4/2014
Decree Authorizing Minister of Interior with Regards to Military Judiciary This decree authorizes the Minister of the Interior with the referral authority as it pertains to police recruits being tried by the military judiciary. Article 204 of the Constitution gives the military judiciary the sole authority to adjudicate on all crimes pertaining to the Armed Forces, officers, and their equivalents. Earlier this year, police recruits were included among those upon whom the military court system has jurisdiction. This decree facilitates the referral process. Ultimately these laws raise concerns because allowing the military courts to try crimes committed by police recruits brings a significant subset of the population under the authority of a body which is not necessarily transparent and is not bound by the same due process requirements of civilian courts. 12/8/2014
Removal of Mohamed Farid El-Tohami from position as head of Intelligence This decision facilitates the removal of Mohamed Farid El-Tohami from his position as head of the country’s General Intelligence Authority. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President. The removal of the head of the General Intelligence Authority, due to alleged health reasons, seems to covered by this authority. 12/21/2014
Allocation of Land to Drinking Water Authority This decree authorizes the allocation of land to the National Authority for Drinking Water and Sanitation Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating the provision of drinking water and sanitation exists within that grant. 12/21/2014
Allocation of Positions from Intelligence Authority to Government Ministries This decree authorizes the transfer of three positions from the General Intelligence Authority to various government ministries. Articles 163-174 of the Constitution deal with the structure of the government; it is seemingly within the authority of the President to be able to allocate additional positions to government ministries, although the Constitution does not seem to explicitly speak to this matter. 12/21/2014
Appointment of Ta7ya Misr Board of Trustees This decree facilitates the appointment of the Board of Trustees for the Ta7ya Misr fund. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President. The appointment of the Board of Trustees of this charitable entity created by the State seems to fall within this authority. 12/22/2014
Extension of the Term of the Current Head of the Suez Canal Authority This decision extends the term of the current head of the Suez Canal Authority by one year. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President; extending the term for the head of the Suez Canal Authority can arguably fall within this grant of power. 12/30/2014
Final Report for 2013/2014 Budget This administrative decision involves the issuing of the final report for the country’s 2013/2014 budget. Article 125 of the Constitution governs the submission of the final accounts of the budget, a matter that is usually handled by the House of Representatives. In light of the absence of a parliamentary body at present, it is likely that the President is acting within his everyday administrative grant of authority. 12/31/2014
Allocation of Land This decision involves the allocation of 5,115 acres of land in Aswan to be used for industrial purposes. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; allocating land for industrial purposes seems to fall within this grant of authority. 1/1/2015
Decree Appointing Minister to Agricultural Committee This decree appoints the Minister of Local Development to the Board of the General Authority for Rehabilitation Projects and Agricultural Development. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President. The appointment of a Minister to the Board of a government entity seems to fall within this authority. 1/10/2015
Appointment of Two Deans This decree approves the appointment two deans to Minya University. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 1/11/2015
Decree Assigning Prime Minister Presidential Authority This decree assigns the Prime Minister presidential authority to potentially ban or halt the publication/distribution of materials that touch on religion and could harm public order. As per Article 148 of the Constitution, the President may delegate some of his powers to the Prime Minister. This decision, which comes in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo attacks however, raises questions on how this authority will be implemented and whether it will touch on the freedom of expression of Egyptian citizens, violating both constitutional and international provisions. 1/13/2015
Decree Appointing State Council Delegates This decree appoints 193 delegates to the State Council. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President. The appointment of State Council delegates seems to fall within this authority. 1/13/2015
Decree Appointing Vice President and 3 Deans at Zagazig University This decree appoints a Vice President and three Deans at Zagazig University. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans and other university leadership potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 1/13/2015
Appointment of University Dean This decision involves the appointment of one dean to the University of Alexandria for a period of three years. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the university. 1/16/2015
Reallocation of State-Owned Land This decision reallocates state-owned land, including 17.84 acres in Al-Beheira and 52.4 acres on the Cairo-Alexandria Road, for use by the General Authority for Rehabilitation Projects and Agricultural Development. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating agricultural development falls within this domain. Additionally, Article 29 gives the State the authority to protect agricultural lands. 1/16/2015
Reallocation of State-Owned Land This decision reallocates 183,492 acres of state-owned land in Minya for use by the General Authority for Rehabilitation Projects and Agricultural Development. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating agricultural development falls within this domain. Additionally, Article 29 gives the State the authority to protect agricultural lands. 1/20/2015
Extension of CAPMAS Head’s Term This decree extends the term of the current head of the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Abu Bakr Mahmoud Mohamed Bakr El-Gendy for one additional year. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President; extending the term for the head of CAPMAS can arguably fall within this grant of power. 1/24/2015
Appointment of Seven Deans This decree approves the appointment of six university deans at Assiout University and one at Minya University. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the university. 1/24/2015
Allocation of Land in South Sinai These three decrees facilitate the allocation of land for development purposes in South Sinai. The first decision allocates 3,908.93 feddans of state-owned lands to establish an industrial area in Abu-Znema. The second decision stipulates the transfer of the ownership of the Tur Sinai fishing port from the South Sinai governorate to the General Authority for Fish Resources Development. The final decision allocates 4,733.72 feddans of state-owned land to be used in building Ras Sidr Airport. Article 78 of the Constitution allows the State to regulate the use of state-owned land in order to serve the public interest and provide citizens with public utilities and services; facilitating development in South Sinai seems to fall within this authority. 2/5/2015
Establishment of Four Presidential Councils This decree establishes four presidential advisory councils specialized in community development, education and scientific research, economic development, and foreign policy and national security. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. While there is no doubt that the President has the right to seek such advice, there are concerns that having a large number of appointed individuals who were not democratically elected and granting such individuals extra-constitutional powers of influence detracts from the overall democratic process. 2/5/2015
Appointment of University Dean This decree approves the appointment of one university dean to Assiut University Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 2/11/2015
Appointment of Administrative Prosecution Positions This decree approves the appointment of about 245 positions within the Administrative Prosecution. Article 197 of the Constitution governs the Administrative Prosecution and its functions. It seems to be within presidential appointment authority to appoint individuals to positions within this body. 2/17/2015
Appointment of University Dean This decree approves the appointment of one university dean to Minya University Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 2/19/2015
Appointment of University Dean This decree approves the appointment of Youssef Ahmed Gad El-Rab as Dean of the Faculty of Arts to Assiut University Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 3/6/2015
Civil Service Law This decree approves a new Civil Service Law that centralizes the process of recruitment, re-categorizes jobs, and streamlines promotion. The law creates three new categories to organize existing jobs: specialized, administrative/technical, and handicraft jobs. Various guidelines will exist to organize promotion based on seniority and performance. The new law also establishes a Council for Civil Service. Article 27 of the Constitution mandates that the State increase job opportunities; enhancing the existing structure governing civil service jobs seems to fall within this authority and ensures that the State's resources are used in the most effective manner. 3/12/2015
Decree Approving Sale of Land to Foreigners This decreee approves the sale of certain pieces of land to Saudi Arabian businessman Ali Hassan Ali El-Dayekh and Jordanian businessmen Fayeq Tawfik Ragy to establish a residential tourist resort, among other purposes. Article 78 mandates that the State regulate the use of state land; allocating land to foreigners seems to fall within this authority, albeit within the proper means and in a manner that does not facilitate corruption and favorable treatment, as had historically been the case with many older land deals. 3/19/2015
Appointment of Assistant Prosecutor-General to Cairo Appeals Court This decree approves the appointment of Zakariya Abdel Aziz Othman Ali as the new Assistant Prosector-General to the Cairo Appeals Court. Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. This appointment thus seems to come under this authority and that of Law No. 46 of 1972. 4/2/2015
Awarding of Medal of Totality to 31 Egyptian Women This decree approves the awarding of a medal to 31 Egyptian women for setting a standard of totality and perfection. The Constitution is seemingly silent on the presidential authority to issue medals and/or decorations to other citizens. Thus these awards seem to come within the authority of Law No. 12 of 1972. 4/2/2015
Appointment of Head of Official Hajj Mission The decree approves the appointment of the Minister of Endowments as the official head of the Egyptian Hajj Mission for the Islamic year of 1436. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President; this appointment seems to fall within this authority. 4/6/2015
Appointment of Head of the Administrative Control Authority This decree approves the appointment of Mohamed Mohamed Irfan Gamal El-Din as head of the Administrative Control Authority. Article 216 of the Constitution authorizes the President to appoint the head of all regulatory agencies, including the Administrative Control Authority. 4/9/2015
Appointment of Presidential Adviser on Combating Corruption This decree approves the appointment of Mohamed Omar Haiba as the incoming Presidential Adviser on Combating Corruption. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisors. This appointment seems to fall within this authority. 4/9/2015
Pardon on Occasion of April 25 This presidential decree involves a pardon for certain individuals on the occasion of Sinai Liberation Day, April 25. Article 155 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to issue pardons. While issuing pardons on national holidays has become custom in Egypt, there are some concerns with regards to the means by which pardons are issued, the criteria for pardons, and the implementation of these pardons. Historically, political prisoners have not been granted presidential pardons, raising questions on the process. 4/14/2015
Amendment to the Construction Law This amendment to the Construction Law details the appropriate administrative bodies that manage the planning and organization of land pertaining to urban communities, tourism, industrial development, and the armed forces. Article 78 of the Constitution authorizes the state to regulate the use of state lands; an amendment that facilitates land use seems to fall within this grant of power. 4/21/2015
Decree Cancelling Daylight Savings This decree cancels Daylight Savings Time in Egypt Articles 122 and 123 of the Constitution establish the general authority for the president to propose and issue laws, alongside Article 139 which describes the general role of the president; although not immediately clear, an administrative decree like the one at hand can be argued to fall within the broadly delineated powers of the president. 4/23/2015
Allocation of Land to the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch This decree allocates 30 acres of state-owned land to the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch to allow the Morqosiyya Church to build an addition in Tagammu Khamis in New Cairo. Article 78 of the Constitution authorizes the state to regulate the use of state lands; an amendment granting additional land to an existing church seems to fall within this authority. 4/30/2015
Decree Exempting Presidency & Cabinet from Public Sector Laws This decree exempts the Cabinet and the presidency from following public sector regulations when it comes to the hiring and firing of high-level employees. Article 218 of the Constitution mandates that the state fight corruption. There is fear that by exempting the hiring and firing of public sector employees from the laws generally governing such positions, cronyism and nepotism--rather than merit--become factors governing high-level employment. The existing system put forth by the country's public sector laws is meant to ensure transparency, and a decree which circumvents this transparency may potentially raise serious concerns. 5/7/2015
Decree Authorizing Minister of Petroleum to Sign Agreement This presidential decree authorizes the minister of petroleum to sign an agreement between the Egyptian Natural Gas Holding Company, IEOC Production BV, and BP Exploration Limited. Article 148 of the Constitution empowers the president to designate some of his powers to his ministers; allowing the petroleum minister to sign an agreement regarding natural resources seems to be covered by said article. Article 32 of the Constitution also places the responsibility of acting to preserve and effectively exploit natural resources, as would seemingly be done through this agreement, with the state. 5/10/2015
Decree Authorizing the Removal of a Number of Ministers This presidential decree removes the Ministers of Justice, Electricity, Finance, Investment, and Industry from their current positions. The removals were a result of controversial statements made by the Minister of Justice and "ineffective performance" with the case of the remaining ministers. Article 147 of the Constitution enables the President to conduct a government reshuffle and remove members of the Cabinet after consultation with the Prime Minister. Generally, votes from the House of Representatives will be necessary, but in the absence of parliamentary authority, this requirement has been sidestepped. The President also maintains the authority to relieve the government from the carrying out of its duties more broadly. 5/11/2015
Decree Appointing Head of the President's Office This decree appoints General Mostafa Shereef to the position of head of the Office of the President. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president that allows him to make administrative decisions and take on appointed advisers. This appointment seems to fall within this authority. 5/16/2015
Appointment of University Dean This decree approves the appointment of Gamal al-Din Ali Aboul Magd as Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at Minya University. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the President to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 5/17/2015
Decree Approving the Ownership of Land to Saudi Arabian National This decree approves the ownership of three pieces of desert land near Beheira to Abdul Aziz bin Abdulrahman bin Abdallah, a Saudi Arabian national. Article 78 mandates that the State regulate the use of state land; allocating land to foreigners seems to fall within this authority, albeit within the proper means and in a manner that does not facilitate corruption and favorable treatment, as had historically been the case with many older land deals. 5/17/2015
Decree Appointing 310 State Council Delegates & 258 Advisors This decree appoints 310 State Council delegates and 258 advisors to the State Council. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President. The appointment of State Council delegates seems to fall within this authority. 5/18/2015
Decree Turning the French University into a Public University This decree changes the French University in Egypt from a private university to a public university. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities, but also mandates that the State ensure the availability of a university education; a decree turning a private university into a public one may arguably fall into this authority, although it is unclear how this move will impact the university's autonomy. 5/23/2015
Decree Making New Appointments to the Diplomatic Corps This decree appoints 13 ambassadors of the highest rank, 21 other ambassadors, 31 deputy ambassadors, 36 advisors, 35 first secretaries, 35 second secretaries, and 40 diplomatic attaches. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president to appoint and dismiss political representatives; appointments the diplomatic corp seems to fall within this authority. 5/25/2015
Appointment of Ambassador to Israel This presidential decree appoints the first Egyptian Ambassador to Israel in three years Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority for the President to appoint and dismiss political representatives; appointing an ambassador to Israel seems to fall within this authority. 6/22/2015
Appointment of Ministry of Defense & Interior representatives to Legislative Reform Committee This presidential decree appoints one reperesentative from both the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior to the Legislative Reform Committee Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President to make administrative decisions and appoint advisers. This appointment seems to fall within this authority. In light of the continued absence of an elected parliament however, there are serious concerns regarding the power that this committee – which is solely comprised of appointees – has in the legislative process. 6/25/2015
Appointment of 797 Assistant Public Prosecutors This decree appoints 797 assistant public prosecutors Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the President for administrative decisions and governmental appointments. More specifically, Article 189 enables the President to appoint the public prosecutor, as such this appointment seems to fall within this authority. 6/25/2015
Appointment of the Head of the Court of Cassation This decree appoints Ahmed Gamal El-Din Abdel Latif as head of the Court of Cassation starting on July 1, 2015. Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. As such, this appointment seems to come under this authority. 6/25/2015
Appointment of Four University Deans This decree appoints university deans for the Faculty of Medicine at Mansoura University, the Faculty of Specialized Education at Menoufiya University, the Faculty of Science at Damietta University, and the Faculty of Agriculture at Alexandria University. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the independence of universities; allowing the president to appoint deans potentially challenges the independence of the educational institution. 6/29/2015
Appointment of Administrative Prosecution Authority Head This decree appoints Sameh Mohamed Kamal Ibrahim Eid as the head of the Administrative Prosecution Authority. Article 197 of the Constitution governs the administrative prosecution and its functions. It seems to be within the general presidential appointment authority to appoint individuals to positions within this body. 7/6/2015
Authority to Dismiss Regulatory Body Heads and Members This decree authorizes the president to dismiss the heads and members of regulatory bodies, including the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE), the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority (EFSA), the Central Auditing Organisation (CAO), and the Administrative Control Authority (ACA) under certain circumstances, including reasons of national security. Under Article 216 of the Constitution, the heads of regulatory bodies will not be dismissed except in cases specified by the law. The grant of authority to the president in the decree at hand which expands the cases under which such members can be dismissed thus raises questions on the degree to which these bodies will remain independent and capable of appropriately auditing state institutions. 7/11/2015
Transfer of 19 Intelligence Employees to Various Ministries This decree authorizes the transfer of 19 intelligence employees to various positions in 10 different ministries. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president for administrative decisions and governmental appointments. The transfer of intelligence employees is likely to fall within this authority. 7/26/2015
Appointment of the High Elections Commission This decree authorizes the creation of the High Elections Commission in preparation for the upcoming parliamentary elections. The commission is headed by the head of the Cairo Appeals Court. Under Article 209, the president is granted the authority to appoint the members of the High Elections Commission subject to particular membership guidelines. The appointment of these members in preparation for the upcoming parliamentary elections falls under this authority. 8/13/2015
Establishment of New Courts of First Instance This decree establishes a number of new courts of first instance and rearranges the mandates of some already existing courts Under Article 184, the jurisdiction of the courts will be defined by the law; the president's amendment of such may thus fall under this authority. 8/17/2015
Amendment to Membership of Legislative Reform Committee This decree adds a representative of the Administrative Control Authority to the Legislative Reform Committee. While Article 153 of the Constitution grants the president general appointment authority, there are questions on whether expanding executive advisory committees on legislative matters detracts from the balance of the separation of powers. Further, there are questions on whether such expansion grants executive advisors expansive powers beyond what the constitution envisioned for them. 8/25/2015
Decree Establishing New Technology University This decree establishes a new private university called Delta University for Sciences and Technology Article 21 of the Constitution mandates that the state ensure the availability of a university education. The president's decision to approve the establishment of a new university seems to expand the existing university education options. 8/30/2015
Addition of Four Colleges to the British University This decree adds four colleges to the British University in Egypt: energy and environmental engineering, arts and humanities, tourism and hotel management, and law. Article 21 of the Constitution mandates that the state ensure the availability of a university education. The decision of the president to approve the establishment of new colleges at the university seems to expand existing education options. 8/31/2015
Appointment of 243 Assistant Delegates to State Council This decree appoints 243 assistant delegates to the State Council. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of State Council assistant delegates seems to fall within this authority. 9/13/2015
Appointment of Prosecutor-General This decree appoints Nabil Sadek as the new prosecutor-general to replace the late Hisham Barakat. The appointment is for four years. Under Article 189 of the Constitution, the prosecutor-general is appointed for a period of four years by presidential decree; Sadek's appointment falls within this article's scope. 9/19/2015
Appointment of New Cabinet This decree appoints a new cabinet with Sherif Ismail as the new prime minister. Under Article 147, the president has the authority to conduct a cabinet reshuffle after consultation with the prime minister and the House of Representatives. The president also has the authority to relieve the cabinet of its duties after consulting with the House. In the absence of a parliament, it is impossible for the House to give such advice. 9/20/2015
Appointment of Ibrahim Mahlab as Advisor This decree appoints former Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab to the position of Presidential Advisor for National and Strategic Projects. While Article 153 of the Constitution grants the president general appointment authority to make appointments like the one at hand, there is some concern on whether the power handed down to appointed persons is greater than what was envisioned for them by the Constitution. 9/20/2015
Delegation of Power to Minister of Trade and Industry This decree delegates the presidential powers laid out by the Industry Regulation Law to the Minister of Trade and Industry. Per Article 148 of the Constitution, the president may delegate some of his powers to any of his ministers in the cabinet; this delegation falls under this authority. 9/24/2015
Delegation of Power to the Prime Minister This decree delegates some presidential powers to the prime minister in a variety of subject matters including antiquities, pensions, bonuses, loans, state employees, public entities, al-Azhar, public utilities, and local administration. Per Article 148 of the Constitution, the president may delegate some of his powers to any of his ministers in the cabinet; this delegation falls under this authority. 9/24/2015
Appointment of SCC vice presidents This decree appoints three vice presidents to the Supreme Constitutional Court. Under Article 193 of the Constitution, the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court appoints the vice presidents of the court. These appointments are formalized via presidential decree, as was the case here. 9/30/2015
Appointment of Appeals and Cassation Judges This decree makes a number of transfers and approvals for justices in the cassation and appeals courts. Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. This appointment thus seems to come under this authority and that of Law No. 46 of 1972. 10/19/2015
Appointment of Prosecution Positions This decree makes a number of appointments for aides to the public prosecution and deputies to the prosecutor-general. Article 189 of the Constitution governs the prosecutor-general and the public prosecution, leaving its regulation to the law. Thus, the appointment of assistants to this office stems from the authority granted by the law and by the general appointment authority of the president per Article 153 of the Constitution. 10/19/2015
Appointment of Central Bank Governor This decree appoints Tarek Amer to replace Hesham Ramez as the Central Bank Governor. Article 220 of the Constitution describes the purpose of the Central Bank. Article 216 states that the president shall appoint the head of the Central Bank; thus, this decree falls within the constitutional authority assigned to the president. 10/21/2015
Appointment of Presidential Advisor This decree appoints Mohsen al-Sallawy as a presidential advisor for monitoring. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president to make administrative decisions and appoint advisors. This appointment seems to fall within this authority. At present, there is not much information on the mandate granted to al-Sallawy and thus, a determination as to whether his mandate exceeds that which is appropriate for an appointed advisor cannot yet be made. 10/22/2015
Appointment of Assistant Delegate to State Council This decree appoints Abu Bakr Khalil Hassanein as an assistant delegate to the State Council. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of a State Council assistant delegate seems to fall within this authority. 10/22/2015
Appointment of Permanent Representative to UNESCO This decree appoints Ahmed Badawy Syed as the permanent representative of Egypt to UNESCO. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of a diplomatic ambassador seems to fall within this authority. 11/5/2015
Appointment of Assistant Prosecutor-General This decree appoints Ali Mohamed Omran Mohamed as an assistant prosecutor-general to the Cairo Appeals Court. Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. This appointment thus seems to come under this authority and that of Law No. 46 of 1972. 11/5/2015
Appointment of Assistant to Head of Court of Cassation This decree appoints Ibrahim al-Heneidy as an assistant to the head of the Court of Cassation Article 186 of the Constitution states that the conditions for the appointment and retirement of judges are to be regulated by the law. This appointment thus seems to come under this authority and that of Law No. 46 of 1972. 11/5/2015
Appointment of Central Bank Board This decree appoints two deputies to Tarek Amer as head of the Central Bank and appoints five members to the board of the Central Bank. Article 220 of the Constitution describes the purpose of the Central Bank. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president, which presumably can include appointing members to the board of the Central Bank. 11/18/2015
Restructuring of the State Council Members within the High Electoral Committee This decree restructures the members of the State Council within the High Elections Committee. Article 228 of the Constitution sets forth the High Elections Committee as the body managing the first parliamentary elections after the ratification of the Constitution; further, Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. Appointing members to the HEC thus falls within this authority and under the domestic laws already establishing the HEC. 11/19/2015
Appointment of the Central Bank's Coordinating Council This decree appoints the members of the Coordinating Council of the Central Bank. Article 220 of the Constitution describes the purpose of the Central Bank. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. Article 5 of the Central Bank Law sets forth the guidelines for the appointment of the Coordinating Council. Selecting the members thus seems to fall within these authorities. 11/26/2015
Appointment of the Head of the General Authority for the Suez Canal Economic Zone This decree appoints Dr. Ahmed Darwish as the head of the General Authority for the Suez Canal Economic Zone Article 43 of the Constitution empowers the state to develop the canal as a significant economic pillar. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of the head of an entity that economically manages the Suez Canal thus seems to fall within these grants of authority. 11/28/2015
Appointment of Central Auditing Organization Deputies This decree appoints two deputies to Hesham Geneina, the head of the Central Auditing Organization. Article 216 of the Constitution sets forth the authority of the president to appoint the head of the Central Auditing Organization. More broadly, Article 153 of the Constitution establishes a broad appointment authority to the president to make administrative decisions and appoint advisors. The appointment of CAO deputies seems to fall within the authority granted by these articles. 12/13/2015
Authorization to the Minister of Petroleum This decree authorizes the minister of petroleum to issue contracts between the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, BP Egypt, and RWE AG. Per Article 148 of the Constitution, the president may delegate some of his powers to any of his ministers in the cabinet; this delegation falls under this authority. 12/16/2015
Appointment of Deputies to Ministries This decree appoints deputies to the Ministries of Higher Education and Scientific Research; Education; Health and Population; Housing, Utilities and Urban Development; and Communications and Information Technology. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of deputies to various minisitries seems to fall within this authority. 12/20/2015
Approval of Academy of the Arabic Language Member This decree approves Sultan al-Qassemi, ruler of Sharjah, as an honorary member of the Academy of the Arabic Language. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of an honorary member to the Academy seems to fall within this authority. 12/24/2015
Appointment of New Governors This decree appoints 11 new governors to Alexandria, Suez, Gharbiya, Kafr al-Sheikh, Aswan, Port Said, Sharqia, Giza, Minya, Qalyubia, and Beni Suef Under Article 179 of the Constitution, the law regulates the manner in which governors and heads of other local administrative units are appointed. The appointment of these new governors thus falls within this authority. 12/26/2015
Appointment of 28 Parliamentarians This decree appoints 28 members to the House of Representatives. Under Article 102 of the Constitution, the president enjoys the ability to appoint no greater than 5% of the members of the House of Representatives. These appointments come within this authority as further delineated by the parliamentary election laws. 12/31/2015
Call for Parliament's First Session This decree calls for the House of Representatives to have its first session on January 10, 2016. Under Article 115 of the Constitution, the president enjoys the authority to call for the first session of the House of Representatives; this call thus falls within this authority. 12/31/2015
Appointment of Council of Senior Scholars Members This decree appoints various members to al-Azhar's Council of Senior Scholars. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The appointment of members of the Council of Senior Scholars seems to fall within this authority. 12/31/2015
Authorization to the Minister of Finance This decree authorizes the minister of finance in matters related to the social housing fund. Per Article 148 of the Constitution, the president may delegate some of his powers to any of his ministers in the cabinet; this delegation falls under this authority. 12/31/2015
Creation of National Databases Committee This decree establishes a Higher Committee for the Refining of National Databases and sets forth its membership. Article 153 of the Constitution sets forth a broad appointment authority to the president. The creation of an advisory committee to manage national databases and statistics thus seems to fall within this authority. 12/31/2015
Appointment of President of Damanhour University This decree appoints Dr. Obaid Abdel Aty Saleh as President of Damanhour University for a period of four years. Although Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities, the University Law as amended by President Sisi enables the president of the republic to appoint the presidents of universities.Thus, while there are questions on the extent of university independence, this appointment falls within the president's technical legal authority. 1/1/2016
Appointment of President of Assiut University This decree appoints Dr. Ahmed Abdo Gaees as President of Assiut University Although Article 21 of the Constitution ensures the independence of universities, the University Law as amended by President Sisi enables the president of the republic to appoint the presidents of universities.Thus, while there are questions on the extent of university independence, this appointment falls within the president's technical legal authority. 1/3/2016