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THE LEGISLATION TRACKER PROJECT

Note: This is an archived project. No updates have been made to it since January 2016, when the House of Representatives sat for the first time since the 2014 constitution had been ratified, ending President Abdel-Fattah El Sisi’s unilateral legislative power.

The timeline below chronologically sets out the decrees and laws ratified by President Sisi between the date of his inauguration (June 8, 2014) to the present. A brief description of the decrees and laws is accompanied by an explanation of the constitutional context in which these pieces of legislation came into existence.

Decree Description

Grants the President the right to appoint university heads and department heads and also grants certain termination authority.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes new taxes, including on income, revenue generated by commercial and industrial transactions, and intellectual property, among others.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Criminalizes the digging and use of tunnels at the border areas and criminalizes the forging of police and military identification cards and uniforms.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets the maximum wage in the public sector at EP 42,000 per month.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases price of electricity to EP 0.51 per kilowatt-hour over a 5-year period.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets new regulations for mortgage companies, low-income housing, and unlicensed real estate projects.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Implements punishments for those who drive while under the influence or without a license and those who litter while driving.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Doubles the tax on alcohol and increases the tax on cigarettes by 120%.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Raises military pensions by 10 percent and amends certain provisions pertaining to insurance and retirement.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Creates the Supreme Elections Commission to undertake the logistical work needed for parliamentary elections.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants tax-exempt status to certain groups, including properties affiliated with the Armed Forces.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants the Suez Canal Authority the authority to issue tax-exempt investment certificates.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets forth minimum and maximum wages along for official payment schedule.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes a Presidential advisory board of experts with technical and scientific expertise.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Founding of Zakat Charity Fund.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Framework Agreement with Cyprus regarding co-exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Changes certain provisions governing the rank of officers and reserve officers, as well as technical schooling for military members.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes an agricultural insurance fund to cover damage caused by natural disasters.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Regulates health insurance for farmers and agricultural workers.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Penalizes receipt of foreign funds for arms with life imprisonment.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Makes Ministry of Defense approval necessary for all weapons deals.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Forms a Presidential advisory board with community development expertise.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Makes the military judiciary the only body with the authority to try crimes committed by police recruits.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets forth punishments for students and teachers at Azhar University found to impede the educational process.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Facilitates the production of electricity from renewable energy sources.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Declares state of emergency in the north and center of the Sinai Peninsula for three months, authorizing army and police to take all necessary measures.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Allows military forces to join police in securing public institutions, mandating that all crimes on such institutions be tried by military court.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies World Bank comprehensive financing loan worth $300 million.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints Fayza Aboul Naga as a Presidential Advisor for National Security and Ahmed Gamal El-Din as a Presidential Advisor for Security Affairs.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Allows the transfer of non-Egyptian defendants on trial to their countries to be tried there, or post-conviction, to serve sentences there.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets guidelines and restrictions for micro-finance services and projects.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Penalizes crimes committed using technology and in the cyber sphere.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes the Tahya Masr fund.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ensures that investigative judges complete their work in criminal cases in no longer than six months.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the guidelines governing Ministry of Health and Population government workers.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends guidelines regulating centers and institutes affiliated with Ministry of Scientific Research.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves the construction of an Evangelical church in Sohag.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes mortgage fund for low-income individuals.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Forms a high-level committee to develop a comprehensive plan to deal with tourism challenges.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Cooperation Agreement between the United States and Egypt on water and sanitation services.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Categorizes certain border regions as “prohibited” and “restricted.”
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants accession to the Riyadh Arab Agreement for Judicial Cooperation.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Implements gradual increases to the percentages in pensions and retirement benefits for members of the Armed Forces.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases pension disbursements calculations by 10 percent.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Criminalizes the illegal trafficking and trade of manuscripts.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Creates new police rank with arrest powers.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Passes five decrees facilitating cooperation with the United States on electricity generation, science and technology, higher education, agriculture, trade, and investments.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Passes a cooperation agreement with Mauritius on investment-related matters.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes electronic payments for certain entities affected by the law.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Removes former head of General Intelligence Authority Mohamed Farid El-Tohami.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Lays out a strategic framework for cooperation and economic agreements with China.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Divides the country into individual candidate districts and electoral list districts for parliamentary elections.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases the rate at which 2007 military pensions are calculated by 5 percent.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Facilitates creation of electricity from renewable energy sources.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agricultural cooperatives as non-profits for legal purposes.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the cooperation agreement between the United States and Egypt on utilities and amenities.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes a “crisis cell” to respond to crises concerning the kidnap and murder of Egyptian Copts in Libya.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Streamlines the expropriation of property for public use and the reimbursement of property owners.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Allocates power from the President to the Prime Minister to ban or halt the publication and distribution of foreign publications that implicate religion and could harm public order.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons certain prisoners, selected by a higher committee made up of security and prison officials, on the occasion of January 25.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agreement with South Sudan to facilitate travel for individuals with diplomatic passports.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants university presidents the power to refer professors to disciplinary committees for on-campus violence and/or political activity.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Permits the Ministry of Agriculture to regulate the trade of certain types of domestic cotton.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies agreement with the U.N. Population Fund on the role that the UNFPA will play.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Passes an agreement with the World Food Programme to create fixed assets for poor communities.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies a $200 million loan agreement between Egypt and the United Arab Emirates’ Khalifa Fund.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Awards medals to police martyrs and other police officials.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Permits the Ministry of Agriculture to regulate the trade of certain types of domestic cotton.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agreement with the United States to facilitate cooperation on education.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Facilitates foster care of children at an earlier age.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves the construction of an Evangelical Church in Alexandria.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes four presidential advisory bodies with expertises ranging from community development to national security.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Removes the customs tax on certain medication that is urgently needed
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Changes the age in penal provisions in the Child Law from 21 years old to 18 years old
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agreement with the United States to facilitate growth in Egypt's tourism sector.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agreement with the United States to facilitate cooperation on technology and research.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Raises the sales tax on both local and imported cigarettes
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants the Public Prosecution the authority to issue a Terrorist Entities List and a Terrorist List
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes agreement with the United States to facilitate cooperation on trade and investment.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the guidelines establishing the National Planning Institute
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes the Specialized Council for Economic Development
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes the Center for Contract Farming
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Expands the definition of an "orphan" for purposes of social security and empowers the Prime Minister to create new social security programs.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends the statute of limitations for bribery and embezzlement
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Facilitates investment procedures and creates incentives for companies to invest
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Centralizes the recruitment, categorization, and promotion processes for civil service jobs.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies the International Convention On the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the process by which the pope is elected.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Facilitates issuing of Suez Canal Development Project investment certificates
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Allows the surplus of the New Urban Communities Authority to be independent from the social housing fund
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves the construction of an Evangelical Church in Maadi, Cairo.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves the appointment of a Presidential Adviser on Combating Corruption
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the penal code as pertains to border tunnels
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons individuals on the occasion of Sinai Liberation Day
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the Construction Law to standardize administrative elements of the law
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Cancels Daylight Savings
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies a $500 million loan agreement with the World Bank to fund a natural gas project
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends the state of emergency in Northern Sinai for an additional three months
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Allocates land to allow Morqosiyya Church to construct an addition in Tagammu Khamis
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Exempts the Presidency & Cabinet from adherence to certain public sector employment regulations
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Removes the Ministers of Justice, Electricity, Finance, Investment, and Industry
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement with the World Food Programme to assist families in the Red Sea region
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement with the IFTC to finance the importation of basic commodities
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement with the UAE for the renovation of the Islamic Art Museum
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends the current leadership term for trade unions
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies a loan agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia governing the expansion of an electricity project
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons 165 detainees on the occasion of Ramadan
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the law governing special economic zones
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the law governing the protection of intellectual property
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints an Egyptian Ambassador to Israel for the first time in three years
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior representatives to the Legislative Reform Committee
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Creates committee to recover Egyptian assets abroad
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases eligible military pensions by 10 percent starting July 2015
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases eligible pensions by 10 percent starting July 2015
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies amended 2015-16 budget
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies a customs agreement between Egypt and Albania
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets forth the electoral districts in preparation for the upcoming parliamentary elections
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Authorizes the President to dismiss heads and members of certain regulatory bodies for reasons including those of national security
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Enables certain security sectors within the state to establish security companies that protect public facilities and public funds
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the law governing the judicial committees for military officers
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Reorganizes the country's electricity regulatory agency
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons prisoners on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr and the July Revolution
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes logistics pertaining to the Tahya Masr fund
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Enables Suez Canal Authority to establish shareholding companies
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an electricity agreement between Egypt and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends the state of emergency in North Sinai for an additional three months
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Repeals earlier decree mandating SCC review of election laws within five days
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends House of Representatives Law to bring the total membership of the parliament to 596
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the Political Rights Law to set different campaign spending limits
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons 46 Sudanese citizens and deports them back to Sudan
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes an economic zone for the Suez Canal
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints the members of the High Elections Commission
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement between Egypt and Japan approving the establishment of aqueducts
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Sets forth and penalizes terrorist crimes and establishes procedural guidelines for the investigation and trial of terrorist acts.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends Sinai Integrated Development Law and places restrictions on ownership for non-Egyptians
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Reorganizes and establishes a number of courts of first instance
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Increases the maximum limit for military pensions by 250 percent
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Lowers the tax ceiling on income taxes and ends the wealth tax
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Establishes procedures for the handling of illicit gains
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends Insurance Supervision and Control Law as it pertains to government insurance funds
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Adds member of Administrative Control Authority to Legislative Reform Committee
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement between Egypt and the International Labor Organization
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies a loan agreement between Egypt and the European Bank around a sanitation services project
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Grants 10 percent bonus to state employees
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints new prosecutor-general to replace the late Hisham Barakat
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints a new cabinet under the supervision of Sherif Ismail as prime minister
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Ratifies an agreement between Egypt and the International Fund for Agricultural Development to finance an agricultural investment project
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons 100 detainees, among them political prisoners
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Criminalizes the knowledge of and failure to report the possession of explosives
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Pardons 20 Sudanese citizens
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Punishes those who print, publish, broadcast, or promote exam questions and/or answers
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

This decree sets forth a one-year prison sentence and/or LE50,000-200,000 fine for forms of environmental pollution impacting the Nile River.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

This decree increases the tax on business- and first-class airplane tickets to LE400 and the tax on economy-class tickets to LE150.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves loan agreement between Egypt and Italy on land ownership
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints Tarek Amer as the new Central Bank Governor
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the Environment Law to tighten regulations and set forth the components of the environmental protection fund
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends Prison Law to extend solitary confinement, regulate visits of the National Council for Human Rights, and set forth regulations for the use of force
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the Oil Exploration and Exploitation Agreement in Northern Alexandria
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends the state of emergency in North Sinai for three months
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints Egypt's Permanent Representative to UNESCO
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Awards pensions to non-commissioned officers and volunteer soldiers
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the Family Insurance Law as it pertains to the family insurance fund
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the law governing mayors and sets forth security-related committees
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the curfew hours in North Sinai to shorten the time period
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Decree Description

Amends Social Insurance Laws and subscription fees
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Withdraws Egypt's prior reservation to the African Charter as pertains to the age for child marriage.
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends some of the guidelines related to militarily-evacuated lands and the establishing of alternative military zones
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Approves World Bank loan on social safety nets
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Extends benefits to university hospital employees
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Amends the beneficiaries and additional pension scheme for the Armed Forces
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Decree Description

Approves African Development Bank decree regarding shares
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Appoints 11 new governors
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Institutes a licensing requirement for companies guarding facilities and transferring funds
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Decree Description

Establishes the General Secretariat of the National Defense Council
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Decree Description

Appoints 28 parliamentarians to the House of Representatives
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Authorizes public law legal persons to establish shareholding companies
Constitutional Context

Decree Description

Calls for parliament to have its first session
Constitutional Context