Sinai’s Bedouin tribespeople have been victims and, at times, perpetrators of terror attacks. Increasingly, they have taken more complex and active roles in Egypt’s “war on terror.”
While sectarian violence in Egypt became of more pressing international concern after a series of deadly attacks by Egyptian militants, the issue is longstanding and pervasive.
Tactics used in Egypt to stifle both independent and pro-regime media have included imprisonment of journalists, media blackouts, channel closures or blockages, and laws criminalizing “false news.”
Under the NGO Law, domestic and foreign nongovernmental organizations must obtain prior approval before receiving funding from outside of Egypt and from foreigners residing inside Egypt.
The law was retroactively approved by the House of Representatives in a hasty process that involved the review of 341 decrees in 15 days once the legislature reconvened in January 2016.
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6,500-megawatt hydroelectric power plant being constructed in Ethiopia, has been a major point of contention between Egypt and its southern neighbors.
Between 2013 and 2017, several European countries—most notably France and Germany, along with Russia—have provided Egypt with over $4.2 billion in arms sales.
Egypt’s Christians, who make up roughly 10 percent of the population, have long faced infringements on their rights and been marginalized from political and economic opportunities.
In August 2018 alone, the Trump administration released nearly $400 million in withheld military assistance to Egypt ($195 million in FY16 and $195 million in FY17).
The Counter-terrorism Law sets forth the official state definitions for a terrorist, terrorist act, and terrorist financing using vague language that is subject to broad interpretation.